Transcribed

## ixtract | The tone makes the tune

ivtract the TONE makes the TUNE ACDC or Beethoven? Coldplay or Mozart? Of course, you can hear it: there are individual melodies - and instruments! But what makes the sound shape of a guitar different to the one of a trumpet, even if they both play the same tune? Let's go and discover how various tones are formed and what characterizes the sound of certain instruments! Tone By striking a tuning fork, the surrounding air molecules begin to oscillate. Their thinning and compression can be compared to a uniform sinus curve. One pure tone, one sinusoidal waveform: Amplitude determines loudness Air molecules in oscillation Frequency determines the pitch Periodic time for one sinusoidal waveform Tuning fork in oscillation Frequency determines the pitch Example: Scale c' to c2 c²-frequency = c'-frequency × 2 c2 = 523.2 Hz The frequency doubling generates the interval of one octave from c' to c?. c = 261.6 Hz Timbre 2 tones overlay each other. By adding up both waveforms a new sound is created. Adding both waveforms: 1plus plus plus minus Two tuning forks generate different oscillations interfering with each other minus | =1} sum plus minus minus plus minus Difference between timbre and noise The newly created sound: Timbre: constant waveform as a combination of periodic sound waves of different frequencies Noise: constantly changing waveform created by endless tones of different frequencies Different instruments, different sounds The following comparison is based on the note c3, played by different instruments over the same periodic time. String instrument The longer and thicker a string, the lower the sound. The keynote of every typical sound is overlapped by overtones, ocillating in a multiple of the keynote's vibration. Keynote of the string 1st Overtone 2nd Overtone 3rd Overtone Model Sound Overlay of the keynote and three overtones (a realistic waveform looks more detailed) Raise the pitch: shorten the string Vary the sound: different types and strumming techniques of strings in bass clef equates to c" in violin clef Acoustic guitar Electric bass Many overtones: The curve looks irregular due to the mul- titude of overtones in the string vibration. Low frequency: The note played is the same, but due to the bass notation the frequency is lower. Brass instruments Vibrating lips of the player transfer the oscillation to the brass instrument. A vibrating tube of air is created. The length of an "unwounded" trumpet is about 134 cm. "Unwounded" brass instrument: The wavelength of the keynote is about twice as long as the instrument's length. Raise the pitch: shorten the tube inside the instrument by opening buttons Lower the pitch: using a trombone slide, the oscillation artificially extends and the tone gets lower Trumpet Trombone Rasping sound: Like the acoustic guitar, the trumpet sound is shaped by many overtones. Steady waveform: Compared to the trumpet, a trombone creates an almost steady waveform. Woodwinds These instruments produce sound by forcing air into a mouthpiece, which causes a reed to vibrate: Air Reed The wavelength of the keynote is equal to the instrument's length. Compared diameters: Clarinet Saxophone | Raise the pitch: The sound varies shorten the tube inside the instrument by opening buttons depending on the instrument's shape: the shape of the clarinet is cylindrical, the saxophone is cone-shaped Saxophone Clarinet Woodwinds among themselves: There is only a slight difference between the two waveforms. Only a slight difference: The waveform of the straight-shaped clarinet appears to be a bit more steady. Sources: musiker.org/images/Bass/e bass-freigestelt.jog www.loermorama.chm1_akustikvoszilagramm.html thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/trumpet-player-4314822.jpg imgges rechneronine.de/note dewikipedia.org/wiki Schal dewikipedia.org/ e Musik29 gesthomann.de/pics/expert0195 saxmundstueck jog www.loermorama.ch/m1_akustiktonklang w.htmlttonklang www.dasp.uniwuppertat.de/arsouditus/akustik/akustik3.htm www.dasp.uni-wuppertatde/ars auditus/akustik/akustika.htm Frequenz dewikipedia.org/wikiTon dewikipedia.org/wikiWellenCIdnge das.biogsport.de/images/klarinette jpg stotic2bigstockphoto.com/thumts onvektor pg BROUGHT TO YOU BY static freenik.com/fotos-k www.dasp.uniwuppertal.de/ars auditus/akustik/akustik21.htm www.musikschulewoljhagen.de/instrumente/bilder/08-klarinete.png www.jugendposaunenchor.de/instrumente/mediatrompete/trompete.gif 643338 jpg itract www.mwaldhausen.bplaced.net/joomla/images/mitglieder/posaune 45 big.png dewikibooks.org/wikiGrundlagen der Akustik ObertsC3ione und Fourier Analyse image.shutterstock.com/display pic with logo/97646/97645,1317925922,3/stock-photo- aphotographic-sihouette ofa bass-guitar player-with-an-electric-amplifier-86092279.jpg visual knowledge transfer c.o escreen 345db139528ddd9d30114190122 un.ipg a3612/saxaphone player notes md w www.ixtract.de 2014

# ixtract | The tone makes the tune

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Shrill and loud or gently and melodious? It's easy for you to hear the differences between an e-guitar solo and a string quartet! But how are various tonal patterns generated? We scrutinized the tru...

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