Transcript

The life of Nelson Mandela

NELSON> MANDELA BEFORE PRISONER - BEYOND PRESIDENT 1918 BORN 1919 On July 18, 1918, in the small village of Mvezo, South Africa, Nosekeni Fanny gave birth to AGE 1 1920 AGE 2 Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Mandela. 1921 Rolihlahla means "pulling the branch of the tree" or more colloquially "troublemaker." AGE 3 "No one is born 1922 AGE 4 hating another 1923 AGE 5 person because of the color of his skin, 1924 AGE 6 1925 Attended a primary school near Qunu where a teacher gave him the name Nelson. AGE 7 Nelson means "Son of a Champion." or his background, or his religion. People 1926 AGE 8 His father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, died and the paramount chief, Jongintaba Dalindyebo, became his guardian. 1927 AGE 9 1928 must learn to hate, AGE 10 and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for 1929 AGE 11 1930 AGE 12 1931 AGE 13 love comes more 1932 naturally to the AGE 14 1933 human heart than AGE 15 1934 Attended Clarkebury Boarding Institute in Engcobo, located in the Eastern Cape Province. its opposite." AGE 16 1935 - Nelson Mandela AGE 17 1936 AGE 18 1937 Enrolled in Healdtown Wesleyan College at Fort Beaufort. AGE 19 1938 AGE 20 O 1939 Enrolled at the University College of Fort Hare, in Alice, and met his lifelong friend Oliver Tambo. AGE 21 1940 Mandela and Tambo were expelled from Fort Hare for political activism. AGE 22 After Jongintaba Dalindyebo arranged a marriage for Mandela, he fled to Johannesburg and became a night-watchman at a gold mine. Then Mandela met Walter Sisulu who helped him get a job at the law firm of Witkin, Sidelsky, and Eidelman. 1941 AGE 23 1942 Completed his B.A. through correspondence at the University of South Africa. AGE 24 O 1943 Started studying law at the University of Witwatersrand for an LLB degree. AGE 25 Campaigned against bus price increases, his first exposure to mass action. Married Evylyn Ntoko Mase, cousin of Walter Sisulu O 1944 Mandela began his political career by formally joining the African National Congress (ANC). Along with Sisulu, Tambo, and a few others, he founded the ANC Youth League (ANCYL). AGE 26 1945 NATIONAL AGE 27 ANC 1946 YOUTNLEAGUE Madiba Thembekile born AGE 28 1947 Elected as National Secretary of the ANCYL and joined leadership in the ANC. Racial segregation was introduced across the country through the Herenigde Nationale Party (HNP). AGE 29 Makaziwe born The ANC released a flyer that protested the Pass Laws and land restrictions against Africans. 1948 PASS LAWS: Since 1800, South Africa had required black people to carry passes in white areas. Mandela failed to pass the exams required for his LLB. Makaziwe dies AGE 30 The HNP won the 1948 general election and instituted its segregation policies which came to be known as apartheid. 1949 Apartheid means "segregation" in Afrikaans. FOR USE BY WHITE PERSONS APARTHEID AGE 31 THESE PUBLIC PREMISES ANG THE AMENITIES TatieD MANE BEEN RESERven rčR THE EXCLUSE USE DOF WHITE PERSONSs. By Drder Pravintial Seretary EL MIRALL SUD-AFRICA 1950 VIR GEBRUIK DEUR BLANKES Makgatho born AGE 32 NIESDIE OPENEARE PERSEEL EN DIE GERIENE DAAVIN IS WA DIE UITSLITLIKE GEBROIK VAN BLANKES MANGEWYS. Op Las Pravinsiale Sekretaris 1951 Elected President of the ANCYL. AGE 33 1952 The ANC implemented the Defiance Campaign, a non-violent resistance against discriminatory laws. As a result, Mandela and 19 others were charged with statutory communism and sentenced to 9 months of hard labor, starting in 2 years. AGE 34 Mandela opened the first black law partnership in South Africa with Oliver Tambo. O 1953 Mandela and Tambo drafted the M-Plan, which divided the ANC into small cells for underground operations. AGE 35 Makaziwe is born, The Criminal Law Amendment Act No. 8 was passed, which made civil disobedience punishable by up to 3 years in prison. named in honor of her older sister 1954 AGE 36 ASSES IROUBL DO NOT HOME WANT 1955 The Congress of the People at Kliptown adopted the Freedom Charter, which demanded equal rights for all. "We, the people of South Africa, declare for all our country and the world to know: That South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black and white, and that no government can justly claim authority unless it is based on the will of the people" - The Freedom Charter AGE 37 1956 AGE 38 Mandela and 155 other ant-apartheid leaders were arrested for high treason, punishable by death. 1957 AGE 39 D 1958 Divorced Evylyn Ntoko Mase Married Nomzamo Winnie Madikizela AGE 40 1959 Crowds cheered as prisoners were brought to trail. Zenani born AGE 41 The Sharpeville Massacre, as it came to be known, left 69 dead and 186 wounded. 1960 In Sharpeville, police opened fire on a peaceful anti-pass march led by the Pan African Congress (PAC). AGE 42 Mandela publicly burned his pass book. The PAC and ANC were banned in South Africa. Zindziswa born 1961 Mandela and 155 other ant-apartheid leaders were acquitted. Umkhonto weSizwe is abbreviated to MK and translates to "Spear of the Nation." AGE 43 Mandela formed the military wing of the ANC, Umkhonto weSizwe (MK), and bombed government structures. 1962 Mandela illegally left South Africa for guerilla training and to build support for the ANC. AGE 44 A CIA tip led to his arrest, and he was sentenced to five years in prison for incitement and leaving the country illegally. 1963 The police raided the MK headquarters in Rivonia, arrested the leaders, and charged them with sabotage. At the sentencing, his supporters sang Nkosi Sikelel iAfrika, which would become the South African national anthem. AGE 45 MANDELA FOR WE S 1964 FREEDOM BY AGE 46 At the Rivonia Trials, 9 out of the 11 accUsed were sentenced to life in prison. Sent to Robben Island Prison. The United Nations and the World Peace 1965 Council called for clemency to no avail. Mandela was a "Class D" prisoner who was only allowed 1 visit and 2 letters a year. AGE 47 1966 Robben Island Prison was designed for political prisoners and was known for its harsh treatment. • 60 prisoners in a cell made for 20 • Backbreaking hard labor • Daily cavity searches No beds / buckets for bathroom • Minimum communication with the outside AGE 48 1967 AGE 49 1968 Mandela's mother, Nosekeni Fanny, died. AGE 50 Mandela spent his time studying for an LLB degree from the University of London. He formed the "University of Robben Island," so that prisoners could give lectures on their own areas of expertise. 1969 His first born son, Madiba Thembekile, died in a car accident. AGE 51. 1970 He formed a working relationship with the warden, who was keen to improve prison conditions. AGE 52 1971 Mandela's reputation grew as he became the most significant black leader in South Africa and a symbol of apartheid resistance. AGE 53 1972 AGE 54 1973 Mandela was offered to settle in the Transkei if he renounced the struggle. He refused. AGE 55 Mandela's time working in the limestone quarries on Robben Island resulted in permanent damage to his eyesight. 1974 AGE 56 Mandela became a "Class A" prisoner who was allowed to receive 52 letters a year. 1975 He continued to build anti-apartheid attention. AGE 57 1976 Mandela was offered conditional freedom again. He refused. The country worsened under apartheid as 600 students were killed in protests in Soweto. AGE 58 1977 AGE 59 1978 AGE 60 The international community called for Mandela's release. The South African government refused. O 1979 AGE 61 OUR 1980 15 million people signed the nationwide Release Mandela Campaign. EADEKS AGE 62 Countrywide protests erupted over wages, rent, bus fares, and education. 1981 AGE 63 1982 Mandela and senior ANC leaders were transferred to Pollsmoor Prison in Tokai, Cape Town. AGE 64 1983 The South African government grew more violent, as did the ANC. AGE 65 1984 Mandela was offered conditional freedom again. He refused. South Africa became increasingly ungovernable. AGE 66 1985 Mandela was offered release if he unconditionally rejected violence as a political weapon. He refused. CHASE Mandela underwent surgery for an enlarged prostate gland. "What freedom am I being offered while the organization of the people (ANC) remains banned? Only free men can negotiate. A AGE 67 Chase Bank recalled a $500 million loan to South Africa. Other banks followed. 1986 prisoner cannot enter into contracts." The US imposed sanctions on South Africa. AGE 68 The South African government declared a nationwide state of emergency. 1987 AGE 69 Mandela showed signs of tuberculosis and underwent surgery at Tygerberg Hospital in Cape Town. 1988 The BBC organized a tribute concert at Wembley Stadium for his 70th birthday. Diagnosed with tuberculosis. AGE 70 Mandela was moved to Victor Verster Prison where he was given a large cottage to live in. He had a swimming pool, a garden, a personal cook, and was allowed many visitors. 1989 AGE 71 Mandela finally completed his LLB degree. 1990 All political parties were unbanned and non-violent prisoners were released. AGE 72 On February 11, 1990, after 27 years of prison, Nelson Mandela was unconditionally released. 1991 He gave his first speech at the Cape Town City Hall. Elected ANC President. AGE 73 Mandela traveled the globe, met with world leaders, garnered political support, and drew attention to his cause. 1992 Visited the 1992 Olympic Games where a South African team was finally allowed to participate. E Lonbon Herald = AGE 74 NELSON MANDELA 1993 FREED Baroelona AGE 75 Received the Nobel Peace Prize in December 1993 along with F.W. de Klerk. 1994 South Africa held the first free democratic election, with millions of formally disenfranchised blacks participating. AGE 76 May 9, 1994, Mandela was elected unopposed as President of South Africa Mandela votes for the first fime in his life. For himself. For President. O 1995 "We have at last, achieved our political emancipation. We pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender, and other discrimination. Never, never, and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another.. Let freedom reign. God Bless Africa!" AGE 77 1996 Divorced Winnie. AGE 78 Mandela oversaw the Truth and Reconciliation Commission The new South African constitution was ratified by Parliament. to investigate crimes committed under apartheid. 1997 AGE 79 1998 On his 80th birthday, Mandela married Graça Machel. AGE 80• 1999 March 23, 1999, Mandela gave his farewell speech and retired. AGE 81 2000 AGE 82 2001 Mandela was diagnosed with prostate cancer and underwent radiotherapy for 7 weeks. AGE 83 2002 AGE 84 D 2003 The first 46664 concert was hosted by Mandela in Cape Town to raise awareness for HIV/AIDS in South Africa. AGE 85 46664 was Mandela's prisoner number. 46664 O 2004 46664 4666 AGE 86 Makgatho dies from AlIDS "Let us give publicity to HIV/Aids and not hide it." 2005 AGE 87 Time Magazine puts Mandela on its list of 100 Most Influential People. 2006 AGE 88 2007 Illustration by Mark Ulriksen for Time AGE 89 2008 Mandela met with Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace. "You look younger every time I see you." -Nelson Mandela AGE 90 On his 90th birthday, the South African Mint issued a commemorative R5 circulation coin in his honor. 2009 In a letter to the newly elected US President Barack Obama, Mandela praises Obama's election. NEISON MÄNDELA DAY ".something truly historic not only in the political annals of your great nation, the United States of America, but of the world." AGE 91 The UN General Assembly declared July 18th "Nelson Mandela International Day" 2010 AGE 92 INTERNATIONAL 2011 Mandela was admitted to a hospital in Johannesburg where he was diagnosed with a chest infection. AGE 93 First Lady Michelle Obama visited Mandela at his home in the Eastern Cape. 2012 AGE 94 Former US President Bill Clinton visited Mandela on his 94th birthday. O 2013 June 8, 2013, Mandela's condition worsened and was hospitalized once again. June 22, South African President, Jacob Zuma, announced that Mandela was in critical condition and called all to pray for the father of the nation. During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people, I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if it needs be it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. -Nelson Mandela Brought to you by: www.bestMSWprograms.com Sources: http://africanhistory.about.com/od/mandelanelson/a/bio_mandela.htm http://www.datesandevents.org/people-timelines/11-nelson-mandela-timeline.htm http://www.nelsonmandela.org/content/page/timeline http://www.geni.com/people/Nelson-Mandela-President-of South-Africa/6000000008671183222 http://africa.harvard.edu/api/mandela-genius-of-restraint/ http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/nelson-mandela-timeline-1910-1919 http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/african-national-congress-timeline-1980-1989 http://www.nelsonmandela.org/interactive-timeline http://www.cnn.com/2012/12/11/world/africa/nelson-mandela--fast-facts http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/mandela/prison/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-23083138 DESIGNER: ERIC PHILLIPS.NET 9 months hard labor The Treason Trials dragged on for over 4 years. Original 5 year hard labor prison sentence Life in prison sentence RICAN N NGRESS 46664 concerts throughout Europe and Africa. Multiple Hospitalizations

The life of Nelson Mandela

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Nelson Mandela, the well known South African anti-apartheid revolutionary and politician, is an inspirational figure for the fight against racism an oppression. With his anniversary this week, let us...

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