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Tuberculosis One untreated Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious and sometimes lethal infectious bacterial disease which most commonly affects the lungs. It is caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. person with TB can infect 10-15 other individuals per year Around 200 people in the EU are diagnosed with TB every day How is it transmitted? Mainly transmitted from person to person through the air. When someone with active pulmonary TB coughs, sneezes, spits or speaks, infected droplets can be projected into the air. Inhaled bacteria can then lodge in the lungs and cause TB. In general, the closer and more frequent the contact, the higher the chance of transmission. Tubercle bacilli ingested by macrophages but survive inside What treatments are there? Tuberculosis is a curable disease but TB bacteria are difficult to Inflammation response brings more defensive cells to the area. Alveolar walls damaged by cytokines eliminate. Standard treatment lasts at least six months and consists of a combination of antibiotics. It can have adverse reactions and should be followed thoroughly to be effective. Is it preventable? Good cough hygiene reduces transmission. Vaccination pro- vides some protection against TB. It is primarily given to infants to protect against severe forms of TB. Transmission of TB is Tubercle formed with caseous center. Tubercle ruptures, bacteria spread to other parts of lungs and other organs prevented best by quickly detect- ing and treating people with infec- tious pulmonary tuberculosis. What are the symptoms? Cough with sputum, sometimes with blood, chest pain and weakness. Other unspecific symptoms include: weight loss, fatigue, lethargy, fever and night inside the lungs outside the lungs sweats. If the infection occurs outside of the lungs, symptoms are related to the site of the disease: For example, TB in the vertebral column can cause back pain; TB in the lymph nodes can cause enlargement of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpit or groin; TB in the kidney can cause blood in the urine or have the same Extrapulmonary tuberculosis can present with symptoms as a regular urinary tract infection. a variety of symptoms that may mimic symptoms of other diseases Inhaled bacteria travel via the circulatory and lymphatic systems to other parts of the body. When the infection occurs somewhere other than the lungs, the disease is called: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis Gastro- intestinal tract Children are at least twice as likely to be reported with extrapulmonary TB as adults Bone It can affect any part of the body Lymph nodes outside of the lungs Pleura Common sites of extrapulmonary TB are: Urogeni- tal tract Patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis Spine are usually not infectious Tuberculous meningitis causes substantial Meninges mortality and morbidity in children and adults Easy to miss: Depending on where it is in the body, obtaining a sample to confirm the diagnosis can be extremely difficult Symptoms are unspecific and clinicians may not consider it in their differential diagnosis 1 in every 5 tuberculosis patients has extrapulmonary tuberculosis ecoc UROPAN CENTR FOR Data from the ECDC/WHO Europe Tuberculosis Surveillance and Monitoring in Europe 2013. Stockholm, 2013 O 199E


shared by arnehaeger on Nov 28
Tuberculosis - 1 in 5 has Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis. ECDC - European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control




Arne Haeger


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