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How Similar is Heroin to Prescription Opioids?

How Similar is Heroin to Prescription Opioids? Heroin and prescription painkillers both belong to the class of substances known as opioids, which either resemble or are synthesized from opiate alkaloids contained in the opium poppy such as morphine'. Ш0 Heroin Heroin is a powerful, illegal, man-made drug that can be smoked, snorted, or dissolved and injected. It is bought and sold on the illicit market as a white or off-white powder and sometimes as a dark, sticky substance known as "black tar heroin." Prescription Opioids Prescription opioids are powerful, man-made synthetic or semi-synthetic drugs that can be swallowed, crushed and snorted, or dissolved and injected. They are frequently prescribed in pill form with carefully measured doses to treat a variety of chronic pain conditions. How Addictive Are Opioids? Opioids depress central nervous system activity by potently mimicking endogenous opioids normally produced in the human body (e.g., endorphins, enkephalins). When opioid receptors are stimulated, a cascade of neurological effects begins, resulting in34: Analgesia Decreased sensation of pain, muscle relaxation, and decreased anxiety. Sedation Drowsiness, lethargy, and mental relaxation. * Euphoria A sense of well-being, contentment, and happiness. These potent effects contribute to alarming rates of abuse: IN 2015 828,000 people age 12 or older reported heroin use at some point during the year, while nearly 12.5 MILLION PRESCRIPTION OPIOIDS HEROIN reported prescription pain reliever use". IN 2014 OVERDOSE DEATHS ** **** **** **** HEROIN PRESCRIPTION OPIOIDS due to heroin & Prescription opioids caused nearly as many OVERDOSÉ 2X DEATHS prescription opioids were at their highest rates SINCE 2001°. (18,893 compared to 10,574). Opioid addiction potential depends on': THE METHODS OF ABUSE (different routes of administration used-smoked, injected, etc.). THE DRUG'S ABILITY TO: CROSS THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER ATTACH TO OPIOID RECEPTORS which influences the speed of onset effects. (i.e., opioid receptor binding affinity). The majority of heroin users report abusing prescription opioids before initiating heroin use, making these medications a GATEWAY DRUG to heroin'. YOUR ODDS of struggling with a heroin problem are 40% HIGHER If you abuse prescription oploids". Are Painkillers and Heroin that Similar? Molecularly, heroi prescription opiods are nearly indistinguishable. and HEROIN PRESCRIPTION OPIOIDS Н. Но НС OH OH AN -CH, CH, CH, HYDROCODONE OXYCODONE Both substances bind to opioid receptors in the brain, using similar pharmacological mechanisms to induce their effects'. Heroin and the huge variety of opioid painkillers will all vary somewhat with regards to both their subjective highs and their respective withdrawal syndromes, despite being molecularly and pharmacologically similar". Heroin Vs. Opioids EFFECTS" METHODS OF USE 1. 16 PRESCRIPTION OPIOIDS PRESCRIPTION OPIOIDS HEROIN HEROIN Euphoria Inject Sleepiness Snort Respiratory Swallow Depression Smoke Slow Heart Rate WITHDRAWAL DANGERS 10, 11, 17 1,12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 PRESCRIPTION PRESCRIPTION OPIOIDS HEROIN OPIOIDS HEROIN Onset varies by Within 12 hours of last use - Generally subsides oplold- May last up within a week Overdose to one month Addiction Anxiety Brain Damage Muscle Aches Stopped Breathing Insomnia Stopped Heart Sweating Blood-borne Viruses Nausea Bacterial Infections Vomiting Hormonal Imbalance Are Painkillers Even More Dangerous than Heroin? Some opioid painkillers are many times more powerful than heroin1. 22 Some prescription opioids, such as hydromorphone, oxycodone, and fentanyl, have abuse potential that is equal to or even higher than heroin", 20 Carfentanil is 100X Fentanyl is up to 50X MORE POTENT THAN FENTANYL MORE POTENT THAN HEROIN Both of these substances have been found mixed with street heroin, resulting in widespread overdoses"2, 23. Ultimately, heroin and prescription opioids are very similar, though prescription opioids may put users at a higher risk for abuse and overdose due to: Their perceived safety. Ease of access. Legal status. Sources: Department of Health and Human Services. (2016). Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic. 2. Holden, J. E., Jeong, Y, & Forrest, J. M. (2005). The endogenous opioid system and clinical pain management. AACN Clinical Issues, 16(3). 291-301. 3. Abadinsky, H. (2014). Drug use and abuse: A comprehensive intraduction, 8th edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 4. Benyamin, R., Trescot, A. M., Datta, S., Buenaventura, R., Adlaka, R., Sehgal, N., Glaser, 5. E., & Vallejo, R. (2008). Oploid complications and side effects. Pain Physician, 11, 5105-5120. 5. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2015). Overdose Death Rates. 7. Compton, W.M., Jones, C.M., & Baldwin, G.T. (2016). Relationship between nonmecdical prescription-oplold use and heroin use. The New England Journal of Medicine, 374. 154-163. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Vital signs: demographic and substance use trends among heroin users – United States, 2002-2013. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 64. 719-25. 9. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014). What are the immediate (short-term) effects of heroin use? 10. U.S. National Library of Medicine. (2016). Oplate and oploid withdrawal. 11. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014). What are the long-term effects of heroin use? 12. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014), What are the medical complications of chronic heroin use? 13. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014). What can be done for a heroin overdose? 14. Garfein, R. S, Vlahov, D., Galai, N, Doherty, M. c, & Nelson, K. E. (1996). Viral infections in short-term injection drug users: the prevalence of the hepatitis C, hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency, and human T-lymphotropic viruses. American Journal of Public Health, 86(5). 655-661. 15. Phillips, K. T. & Stein, M. D. (2010), Risk practices associated with bacterial infections among injection drug users in Denver, Colorado. American Journal on Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 36(2). 92-97. 16. (WAS 14) National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014). How do opioids affect the brain and body? 17. Miller, N. S. (2004). Treatment of Dependence on Opiate Medications. AMA Journal of Ethics, 6(1). 18. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014). What are the possible consequences of opioid use and abuse? 19. (was 9) Ternes, J.W. & O'Brien, C.P. (1990), The opicids: abuse liability and treatments for dependence. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 9. 27-45. 20. Comer, S.D., Sullivan, M.A., Whittington, R.A., Vosburg, S.K., & Kowalczyk, W.J. (2008). Abuse liability of prescription opioids compared to heroin in morphine-maintained heroin abusers. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33. 1179-1191. 21. Drug Enforcement Administration. Fentanyl. 22. Drug Enforcement Administration. (2016). DEA Issues Carfentanil Warning to Police and Public. 23. Drug Enforcement Administration. (2015). DEA Issues Nationwide Alert on Fentanyl as Threat to Health and Public Safety. 12008 6. vzzv * DrugAbuse.com Data collected and sourced by Recovery Brands, 2016 Tustad Aesaces for Sbce Abe and Addiction Tectrent ex ex ex ex

How Similar is Heroin to Prescription Opioids?

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Infographic illustration the similarities between heroin and prescription opioids. It explores the addictive properties of both, the amount of overdose deaths they are responsible for, how people abus...

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