Transcript

History of the Modem

The HISTORY 'MODEMS A LOOKAT HOW MODERN MODEMS WERE BORN The Birth Of The Modem Early Teletype Modems Modems grew out ofthe need to connect teletype machines over ordinary phone lines instead of more expensiveleased lines which had previously been used for aurent loop-based teleprinters and automated telegraphs. In 1943, IBM adapted this technology to their unit record equipment and were able to transmit punched cards at 25 bits per second. During the late 1940's, the United States military expressed a need to transmit hundreds of radar images to command centres during the Cold War, they tumed to the telephone system as a solution, using early Teletype modems to transmit images across the country. This would eventually lead to the AT&T Digital Subset in the late 1950's. The AT&T Digital Subset By 1958, AT&Thad developed the first commercial, mass produced computer modems, called a Digital Subset, to link SAGE computers across the United States and Canada. The AT&T modem could communicate at 110 bits per second. Factoid At 110 bits per second, an average modern webpage (500kb) would take approximately 15 hours to fully load. Even sending a short email at this speed would take around 20 minutes. The Bell 103 Data Phone In 1962, AT&Tintroduced the Bell 103 Data Phone, which set the standard for 300 bits per second full duplex modems. It allowed digital data to be transmitted over regular unconditioned telephone lines and used audio frequencyshift keying to encode data. Did You Know... Bell 103 modulation is still used today, in shortwave radio, amateur radio and some commercial applications. The low signalling speed makes it suitable for noisy or unreliable narrowband links. 110bps 1958 1962 The Hayes 80-130A In 1977, Dale Heatherington and Dennis Hayes created the world's first personal computer modem; the Hayes 80-130A. This modem was hugely popular in the US, as it offered all the right features at the right price point, and allowed a direct connection to the phone, something that users had not had the luxury of experiencing until this point. Facioid The release of the Hayes 80-130A modem coincided with the release of the Apple II in 1977, helping the vintage Apple personal computer to become one of the most popular brands in the world. Hayes Smartmodem Even at faster speeds of 1.2Kbps, Factoid In 1981 the Hayes Smartmodem was introduced, delivering the first 300bps modem to integrate its own command set. This allowed users to initialise, hang up, autodial and more. Prior to this, most users had to dial a phone number manually and hook up the modem once they heard an answer. The basiccommand set remains the basis for computer control of most modems even today. The Hayems smartmodem also delivered a 1200bps version, representing a big step forward in intemet speeds. downloading and emailing would still take a fair amount of time: • Average mp3 (4mb): 11:06:40 • Average webpage (500kb): 1:23:30 • Average email (10kb): 1:40 Increasing speeds Speeds During this period, IBM PC dones dominated the PC market, leading to a new era of intemal ISA (and later PA) modem cards designed for PCcompatibles. Extermal serial modems held on strong however, and during this time speedy 2400bps modems emerged on the market. Technology pushed this limit further over the years, first to 4800bps, then 9600bps, 14400bps, 28800bps and beyond. 28.8Kbps 14.4Kbps 9.6Kbps 4.8Kbps $1000 Costs of the IBM ISA 2400bps modem in '88. 1.2Kbps Lower prices Emails During this period (when modem speeds ranged from 28.8 kbps to 33.6kbps) internal PCl modems became such a commodity that prices plunged and vendors began to ship modems as standard components of desktop PC's and laptops. Emails started to become much more popular in the mid 90's, as most modems could send an average email in just 3 This era saw the introduction of the Winmodem, which offloaded some of the hardware processing to software on the computer, this innovation also made them much cheaper to produce. or 4 seconds. 56K Modem 59:31:25 In 1996, Brent Townsend came up with the technology for the 56K modem. Two years later, in 1998, the first widely available 56K modem was introduced to the market, using Factoid 11:54:17 At 56K speeds, downloads became much faster: a bitrate ration of 56.0/33.6. The price for the speed was also far more reasonable: 00:14:17 00:01:47 1988 IBM 2.4Kbps-$1000 1998 IBM 56Kbps-$149 00:00:02 Email Webpage Mp3 Install File Film 2 ISDN, ADSL& Cable Pirates Having reached the limits of analogue technology, companies tried various new approaches to gain faster modem speeds. The first altemative was all-digital phone lines (ISDN), though the cost limited their popularity. In the early 2000's, modems that worked over cable TV won a following. Phone companies also figured out how to deliver digital data more economically through ADSL lines, making them a hugely popular choice amongst consumers. The faster speeds offered by ISDN lines and other developments increased the issue of online piracy, as online users could download an mp3 in around 6 minutes, and a whole film in around 26 hours. The Birth Of 3G -bunes The first commercial launch of 3G was around 2002, offering application services including wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile intemet accæss, video calls and TV, all in a mobile environment. To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a systemis required to provide peak data rates of at least 200kbit per second. With the speed of 3G making the iPhone the most popular smartphone on the market, iTunes took back some of the legitimate download market share, allowing users to download legal, fully licensed mp3's on the move. A single mp3 could be downloaded in an average time of just 3 minutes. Wireless Networking Factoid Wireless networking became mainsteam technology during the mid 2000's. As broadband intemet service proliferated and wireless networking became virtually plug and play out of the box, manufacturers were able to market modems that allowed increased functionality, with wireless capability induded. In 2004, the average wireless range of a standard modem was up to 150 feet (46m) indoors and up to 300 feet (92m) outdoors. 4G Introduced Factoid At maximum 4G speeds, the time it takes 4G was introduced to the mass market during 2009, to download an mp3 will be around 1 second, and a film around 12 seconds. representing the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. The requirements for 4G standards have set peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100Mbit per second for high mobility communication (such as trains and cars) and 1Gbit per second for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and stationary users). Film Mp3 12 1s 1 Seconds 4G Ratified Future Modem Speeds The requiremnts for 4G are ratified in 2011, with products now expected in 2011-12.4G is expected to be induded inthe next generation of smartphone, with the iPhone5 a potential candidate to feature the new form of speedy mobile browsing. With the advent of fibre optic cables, intemet speeds are expected to increase substantially, in some areas reaching a 10Gbit per second connection within the next ten years. 1Gbit dedicated lines are already available in the UK and the US, as well as other areas. NASA are also currently working on a laser-based optical communication system that will drastically reduce the time it takes to transmit multimedia from space, with data moving at rates up to 100 times faster than current systems. Sources htp:llen.wikipedia.orgwldmodem http://www.dechradar.comhewsintometigeting-connected-ahistory ofmodems htp//www.infoworid.com v onlims-60-years-going onine http:/len.wikipedia.orgwikiwireless_modem show.com/about 5240734 _wireles-cable-modem-information.htmi http:/len.wikipedia.orgwiki4G htp:/lww hitp://www.maoworld.comlartide/157694/2011.02modems.htmi htp:/www.history-computer.com/modemcomputerbasisimodem.htmi hitp:/www.retrohing.com/200903hayesemartmodem.htmi 1948 *FUTURE 1943 1958 1962 1977 1981 80'S9Ợ'S 1998 00S 2002 00'S 2009 2011

History of the Modem

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Once upon a time, transferring just a few kilobytes of data between computers in different locations was considered near science fiction fantasy, or at least a cutting edge military computer science e...

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