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History of Eastern Philosophy

A HISTORY OE EASTERNPHILOSOPHY ISLAMIC & HEBREW DIASPORAS EAST ASIA INDIA IRAN INDIAN PHILOSOPHY 3,000 – 2,000 BCE (There are large ranges for when the two may have lived.) Parashara Vyasa (Son of Parashara) Astrology, classification of plants, foundation Hindu text. Theorizes on "just war," divided Vedas, the 4 goals of life, and traditional writer of the "longest poem ever written." THE VEDIC PERIOD 2 =% Orthodox Hindu Philosophical Schools 1,750 – 500 BCE ("Orthodox" Hindu schools believe in the infallibility of the Veda.) VEDANTA YOGA SRAMANA School of Patanjali Vedic Philosophy 1,500 BCE 1500 BCE 1500 BCE FOUNDERS FOUNDER UNKNOWN Tradition carried on by Gurus (Rishis) FOUNDER UNKNOWN Practice honed since 1500 BCE Many peripatetic monks 35 Relationship between man's soul (atman) and the supreme cause of the universe (Brahman). Meditation, self-discipline and spiritual connectivity are prominent. Relationship between man's soul (atman) and the supreme cause of the universe (Brahman). Meditation, self-discipline and spiritual connectivity are prominent. Striving towards austerity. A wide variety of experimental methods. Origin of cycle of birth and death as well as liberation. 1,000 YEARS PASS CULTURAL REVOLUTION 6th century BCE thinkers Mahavira Socrates Zoroaster Confucius Buddha JAINISM CARVAKA PRE-SECTARIAN BUDDHISM 550 BCE 550 BCE 550 BCE FOUNDER series of 24 liberated humans who found dharma. The last was Mahavira Mahavira Ajita Kesakambali Siddhartha Gautama Subjectivist. Non-violent. Belief in the living soul and equal importance of everything. Advocates of independence and self-control. Skepticism, materialism, religious indifference. Rejected inference as a means to Emphasis on spiritual awakening and emptiness. Attachment to sensory world and material cause suffering. Many philosophical questions can't be answered. establish metaphysical truths. AJIVIKA FOUNDERS Many peripatetic monks ARHAT THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS Central teachings of association, assembly, Buddhism explaining the nature of suffering. SANGHA 500 BCE "Perfected person" who has attained nirvana. Community, or company. Non-theistic. Deterministic. Ascetics. SAMKHYA School of 25 Principles 450 BCE CHANAKYA STHAVIRA NIKĀYA Wrote: Arthasastra (Economics) 300 BCE 300 BCE FOUNDERS 2nd Buddhist Unknown disagreement with Mahāsāmghika Mahavira Substance dualism. Mind/body are matter, as opposed to consciousness. Tri-fold epistemology. Some strands atheistic. Political pragmatism. Discussion of the duties of a king, how to deal with a crisis, how to manage an economy. Council members MAHĀSĀMGHIKA = Buddhist VIBHAJYAVĀDA 300 BCE 300 BCE MIMAMSA FOUNDERS 2nd Buddhist Unknown disagreement with Sthavira nikāya. FOUNDERS Tendency present from pre-sectarian Buddhism. Analysis of phenomena and doctrines. Vedic Exegesis 250 BCE Council members THERAVĀDA PRAJŇAPTIVĀDA Jaimini 300 BCE 300 BCE Philosophy of language, philology, exegesis of the Vedas. Not deeply concerned with God, but rather the dharma. FOUNDER Unknown 4-way split of Vibhajyavāda. FOUNDER Unknown Phenomena are the product of conceptualization. Concepts are conditioned reality, not ultimate reality. BAHUŚRUTĪYA LOKOTTARAVĀDA 200 BCE KĀŠYAPĪYA 200 BCE S Transcendence. Only two real things in the world: emptiness of self and emptiness of phenomena. FOUNDER Unknown 190 BCE FOUNDER Missionaries sent to the king of the Himilaya Kingdom Yājñavalkya Considered the Buddha's teachings of impermanence, suffering, emptiness, anātman, and Nirvana to be transcendent. While other teachings considered mundane. S Agreed with some tenets of both major Buddhist schools. Believed that past MAHIŠĀSAKA events exist in the present in some form. Belief that arhats are fallible. 150 BCE CAITIKA The four noble truths should be meditated on simultaneously, that everything exists but in the present, and that gifts to the Sanghat are better than gifts to Buddha. 150 BCE Purāna FOUNDER Unknown Believed the bodhisattva was supreme to the arhat, and that arhats were fallible. Known for early veneration of anthropomorphic art of Buddha. DHARMAGUPTAKA 150 BCE Teachings of the Buddha are supreme to those of arhats, rejected some texts believing the original teachings of the Buddha were lost, belief that the four noble truths should be meditated on simultaneously. VAISHESHIKA VAISHESHIKA Yonaka Dhammarakkhita The atomist school The school of logic 100 BCE 150 BCE (a Greek monk) SARVASTIVĀDA O BCE All dharmas exist in the Sage Kanāda Aksapada Gautama 3 past, present, and future. "Three times." All objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms. Logical system to prove the Vedas. Four sources of knowledge: perception, inference, comparison, and testimony. Madhyantika = Advaita BHEDABHEDA АВНEDA VISHISHTADVAITA 3 = Orthodox (Vedic) 600 CE 700 CE 1,000 CE Monistic Idealism. The individual self is both different and non-different from the Brahman. Bhäskara Adi Shankara Ramanuja Monistic Idealism. The individual self is not different from the brahman. Qualified non-dualism. The Brahman alone exists, but it characterized by multiplicity. DVAITADVAITA 1,200 CE DVAITA 1,200 CE SHUDDADVAITA ACHINTYA-BHEDA-ABHEDA 1,500 CE 1,500 CE Nimbarka There are three catagories of existence, they are all seperate, but depend upon the Brahman. Shri Madhvacharya Dualism. There is a strict distinction between two equally real worlds: one, the Brahman, and two individual people. Vallabhacharya Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Monism. The soul is The living soul is inextricably linked with Brahman, yet the nature of the link is inconceivable to NEW CHRISTIAN Brahman, but with one part rendered imperceptible. INFLUENCES NEO-VEDANTA 1,800 CE human minds. Non-dualism. Brahman is devoid of categories or classifications. Focus on rational faith, social reform, national identity. Introduced Unitarian Church/Transcendentalist influences. Ram Mohan Roy EAST ASIAN PHILOSOPHIES = Confucianism SHINTO = Naturalism CONFUCIANISM SCHOOL OF NATURALISTS = Political philosophy 660 BCE 500 BCE 500 BCE Collection of an entire region's beliefs. Confucius Zou Yan Rituals, beliefs, and mythologies centered around sacred essences Form of pantheism, tradition- based ethics centering around 5 virtues, philosophy of language, ritual norms and how to live a good life. Attempt to explain the natural world in terms of basic forces: yin, yang, 5 elements, and 5 phases. Naturalism, medical, science, popular belief throughout the natural world. Action-centered religion. LEGALISM DAOISM 300 BCE 450 BCE MAOSIM 1920 CE Shang Yang Laozi Political realism, justification of use of law by autocrat. Belief that good enough laws would prevent the need for future laws. Return to nature rather than "action." Mao Zedong Ethics include a focus on action through inaction, spontaneity, naturalness, and simplicity. Marxist-Leninist thought tailored to China. IRANIAN PHILOSOPHIES = Iranian ZOROASTRIANISM MANICHAEISM ZURVANISM 1800 BCE 200 CE 200 CE FOUNDER Unknown Zoroaster Mani Simplified earlier Iranian pantheon into two opposing forces: progressive mentality, destructive mentality, both under one god. Sees life as a struggle between truths and lies. Dualistic cosmology pitting the spiritual world of light against Neutral god representing space and time gave birth to two dualistic children. Branch of the dark material world. Zoroastrianism. AESTHETIC ZURVANISM FATALISTIC ZURVANISM MATERIALISTIC ZURVANISM 250 CE 250 CE 250 CE FOUNDER Unknown FOUNDER Unknown FOUNDER Unknown Belief that Zurvan (god) is undifferentiated time, the material basis for the universe. Zurvan (god) is a limited portion of time, from which events are already preordained. Belief that the material world (something) could not come from nothing. Denied the existence of a spiritual world from which material was formed. AVICENNISM NEO - MAZDAKISM IRANIAN SCHOOL OF ILLUMINATIONISM 1000 CE PLATONISM 500 CE 1155 CE Avicenna Over 400 books laying the foundation for medicine Mazdak Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi Dualistic cosmology, path to enlightenment describing necessary elements. and the sciences. Speculations on light, how it exists at all levels and hierarchies of reality. Light creates immaterial beings, intellects, souls, and physical bodies. Reconciled Aristotelianism and Neo-Platonism. TRANSCENDENT THEOSOPHY BAHÁ'Í PHILOSOPHY 1580 CE 1800 CE Mulla Sadra Bahá'u'lláh Existential notion that "existence precedes essence." "Substantial motion" explains constant change as a characteristic of physial matter. Advocates peace and justice on a global scale. Exegesis of religious texts, many of which were divine messengers well-fitted to their time and place. PHILOSOPHY OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD C = Islamic SUNNI ISLAM SHIA ISLAM SUFISM 632 CE 632 CE 632 CE Abu Bakr C Ali ibn Abi Tälib C Alī ibn Abi Tālib After Muhammad's death, Muslims who followed Abu Bakr as the first After Muhammad's death, Muslims who followed Ali ibn Abi Tālib as the Unlike other Muslims, Sufis believe they can draw closer to God and embrace his presence in this life. Caliph became known as Sunnis. first Caliph became known as Shias. ATHARI ASH'ARISM MU'TAZILAH 850 CE 900 CE 750 CE Ahmad ibn Hanbal e Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari G Wasil ibn Ata C Strict textual interpretation of the Qu'ran. To engage in rational dispute, even if ending up in truth, is forbidden. Occasionalism, belief that humans have freedom of intention, knowledge must be revealed, and the assertion that human minds cannot on their own Logical depictions of the divine unity. Evil in the world is the fault of human errors. Because of divine unity, the Qu'ran must have been created. establish truth claims. MATURIDI AVERKOISM 900 CE 1,100 CE Muhammad Abu Mansur al-Maturidi E Averroës C Occasionalism, human faith does not increase or decrease, but rather his piety. Reconciling Aristotelian with Islam. Became an important thinker in medieval Europe. WWW.SUPERSCHOLAR.ORG Comprised of schools of thought from KEY BUDDHIST TERMS SINJUJ SIIJUJ FOCUS FOCUS FOCUS FOCUS SNJ0 SIIJU: FOCUS

History of Eastern Philosophy

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After the success of a previous "history of philosophy" graphic, we decided to create a matching flowchart about eastern thinkers.

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