Transcript

Comprehensive History of Philosophy

COMPREHENSIVE HISTORY PHILOSOPHY EAST ASIA INDIA IRAN ISLAMIC & HEBREW OGREEK STEMMING FROM AGREEMENT ROMAN CHRISTIAN O MIDDLE AGES RENIASSANCE STEMMING FROM REJECTION *Before Common Era & Common Era HELLENISTIC MODERN O CONTEMPARY OTHER ANCIENT ORIGINS 3000 – 2000 BCE SUMERIAN (There are large ranges for when the two may have lived.) EGYPT Parashara Vyasa (Son of Parashara) En Heduanna (2354 BCE) Astrology, dassification of plants, foundation Hindu text. Theorizes on "just war," divided Vedas, the 4 goals of life, & traditional writer of the "longest poem ever written." Aganice (1875 BCE) Natural scientist and astrologist. Reported to have computed positions of the planets. Ran kingdom affairs as priestess. Composed poems on what wisdom is. Thinker interested in astronomy, mathematics, & good governance. ZOROASTRIANISM (1800 BCE) THE VEDIC PERIOD Simplified earlier Iranian pantheon into two opposing forces: progressive mentality, destructive mentality, both under one god. Sees life as a struggle between truths & lies. =% Orthodox Hindu Philosophical Schools Zoroaster (1750 – 500 BCE) ("Orthodox" Hindu schools believe in the infallibility of the Veda.) VEDANTA FOUNDER UNKNOWN Tradition carried on YOGA SRAMANA FOUNDERS FOUNDER UNKNOWN Practice honed since 1500 BCE Many peripatetic monks by Gurus (Rishis) Vedic Philosophy (1500 BCE) School of Patanjali (1500 BCE) (1500 BCE) Relationship between man's soul (atman) and the supreme cause of the universe (Brahman). Meditation, self-discipline and spiritual connectivity are prominent. Relationship between man's soul (atman) and the supreme cause of the universe (Brahman). Meditation, self-discipline and spiritual connectivity are prominent. Striving towards austerity. A wide variety of experimental methods. Origin of cycle of birth and death as well as liberation. 1,000 YEARS PASS WESTERN SCHOOLS EASTERN SCHOOLS ATHEN'S GOLDEN AGE & THE VEDIC TRADITIONS IONIAN PHILOSOPHERS SHINTO (640 – 475 BCE) (660 BCE) Sought the principle of things, & the mode of their origin & disappearance Collection of an entire region's beliefs. Thales of Anaximander Anaximes Hericlitus of Ephasus Rituals, beliefs, and mythologies centered around sacred essences throughout the natural world. Action-centered religion. Miletus of Miletus ELEATIC PHILOSOPHERS (570 BCE – 5th century BCE) JAINISM (550 BCE) CARVAKA Xenophanes Parmenides- Zeno of of Colophon of Elea (550 BCE) PRE-SECTARIAN BUDDHISM Anaxagoras of Empedocles of Clazomenae (500 BCE) Elea S Metaphysics, Relationship between change & eternal unity Agrigentum (492 BCE) (550 BCE) Mahavira FOUNDER series of 24 liberated humans who found dharma. The last was Mahavira Ajita Kesakambali PYTHAGORREANS Skepticism, materialism, religious indifference. Rejected inference as a Siddhartha Gautama S Subjectivist. Non-violent. Belief in the living soul & equal importance of everything. Advocates of independence & self-control. (582 BCE – 400 BCE) Emphasis on spiritual awakening & emptiness. Attachment to means to establish metaphysical truths. sensory world & material cause suffering. Many philosophical questions can't be answered. Theano Damo of Crotona Daughters of Pythagorus Myia Pythagoras Damon of Samos Gave philosophy its name: "love of wisdom" Mathematics, Mysticism, Science Perhaps the mother of Plato. Wrote on the Wrote On the Moderation of Women, an early ethics text. ARHAT "Perfected person" who has attained SANGHA Perticonel harmony of women. THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS Central teachings of association, assembly, Buddhism explaining the nature of suffering. Phintys of Sparta Community, nirvana, or company. ATOMISTS OLDER SOPHISTS V = Political philosophy (5th century BCE) (5th century BCE - 375 BCE) = Confucianism = Naturalism FOUNDERS Many peripatetic monks Leucippus Democritus AJIVIKA Non-theistic. Deterministic. Ascetics. Protagoras Gorgias Believed in the doctrine of atoms, or small primary bodies infinite in number, indivisible & imperishable (500 BCE) Hippias Prodicus CONFUCIANISM SCHOOL OF NATURALISTS PLATONISM Grammar, Relativity, Agnosticism (500 BCE) (500 BCE) (469 – Present day) Aspasia of Miletus (470) Known for oustanding thinker on rhetoric Confucius Zou Yan Socrates Plato S Form of pantheism, tradition- based ethics centering around 5 virtues, philosophy of language, ritual norms & how to live a good life. Attempt to explain the natural world in terms of basic forces: yin, yang, 5 elements, and 5 phases. Naturalism, medical, science, popular belief The theory of forms, as well as a threefold division of philosophy into dialectic, ethics, & physics. If real, one of the main characters in the the Symposium. Noted for theories on love, beauty, & the human soul. Substance dualism. SAMKHYA Mind/body are matter, as opposed to consciousness. Tri-fold epistemology. Some strands atheistic. Diotema of Mantinea (450) School of 25 Principles (450 BCE) Mahavira S Works scientifically from the particular to the universal. Philosophy as science. Ethics. DAOISM Aristotle LEGALISM (450 BCE) Return to nature rather than "action." (300 BCE) Belief that good enough laws would prevent the need for future laws. STOICS Ethics include a focus on action through inaction, spontaneity, naturalness, & simplicity. (310 – 180 AD) CONTINUES IN ANCIENT ROME Laozi S Practical application s thought. Virtue is good, vice is bad, everything else in the world is indifferent. Shang Yang = Buddhist Zeno of Cleanthes of Chrysippus Assos CHANAKYA Citium of Soi Wrote: Arthasastra Economics (300 BCE) STHAVIRA NIKĀYA (300 BCE) Political pragmatism. Discussion of the duties of a king, how to deal with a crisis, how to manage an economy. EPICUREANISM FOUNDERS 2nd Buddhist Council members Unknown disagreement with Mahasāmghika (342 – BCE) CONTINUES IN ANCIENT ROME & THE RENAISSANCE Belief in atoms, materialistic metaphysics, empiricist epistemology, hedonistic ethics VIBHAJYAVÄDA Epicurus MAHĀSĀMGHIKA (300 BCE) FOUNDERS Tendency present from pre-sectarian Buddhism. (300 BCE) Analysis of phenomena & doctrines. FOUNDERS 2nd Buddhist Council PYRRHONIAN SKEPTICISM Unknown disagreement with Sthavira (365 BCE) members nikäya. CONTINUES IN ROMAN EMPIRE THERAVĀDA Skepticism, or the suspension of judgement on things PRAJŇAPTIVĀDA Phyro Timon Arcesilaus & Carneades (300 BCE) FOUNDER Unknown 4-way split of Vibhajyaväda. (300 BCE) FOUNDER Unknown Phenomena are the product of conceptualization. Concepts are conditioned reality, not ultimate reality. NEOPLATONISM (205 CE) MIMAMSA Justinian forbids Vedic Exegesis (250 BCE) teaching of philosophy at Athens (529 CE) Philosophy of language, philology, exegesis BAHUŚRUTİYA Plotinus of Porphyry Lycopolis Proclus (200 BCE) of the Vedas. Not A fusion of Greek philosophy and eastern religion Septuagint. Sought to right relations between God and humans. deeply concerned with God, but rather the dharma. Jaimini ECLECTICISM LOKOTTARAVĀDA Yājñavalkya S Considered the Buddha's teachings of impermanence, suffering, emptiness, anătman, and Nirvana to be transcendent. While other teachings considered mundane. (155 BCE) CONTINUES IN ROMAN EMPIRE (200 BCE) FOUNDER Unknown S Sought truth to the highest degree of possibility, fusing skeptical doubt with other school's search for truth. Transcendence. Only two real things in the world: emptiness of self and emptiness of phenomena. Carneades Panaetius Antiochus of Ascalon KĀŠYAPİYA ROMAN PHILOSOPHY // (155 BCE – 525 CE) FOUNDER Missionaries sent to the king of the Himilaya Kingdom (190 BCE) MANY GREEK SCHOOLS CONTINUED Many Roman philosophers tried to make philosophy accessible even to those outside of learned circles. Agreed with some tenets of both major Buddhist schools. Believed that past events exist in the present in some form. Belief that arhats are fallible. PYTHAGOREANISM MAHIŠĀSAKA FOUNDER Unknown CAITIKA ECLECTICISM EPICUREANISM (150 BCE) (150 BCE) S The four noble truths E should be meditated on simultaneously, that everything exists but in the present, and that gifts to the Sanghat are better than gifts to Buddha. Believed the bodhisattva was supreme to the arhat, and that arhats were fallible. Known for early veneration of anthropomorphic art of Buddha. Purāna Nigidius Figulus Lucretius Apuleius of Madaura Cicero STOICISM SKEPTICISM DHARMAGUPTAKA Sextus (150 BCE) Empiricus Seneca the Cornutus Marcus Teachings of the Buddha are supreme to those of arhats, rejected some texts believing the original teachings of the Buddha were lost, belief that the four noble truths should be meditated on simultaneously. Younger Aurelius PLATONISM Yonaka Dhammarakkhita (a Greek monk) Julia Domna (170 CE) VAISHESHIKA Mary the Jewess (200 CE) SARVĀSTIVĀDA Empress of Rome. Gave philosophy a respected place in the Republic. Patron of many philosophers and astrologers. The atomist school (100 BCE) (0 BCE) Platonist natural philosopher. Developed chemistry equipment still used today. Interested in changes to matter. All objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms. All dharmas exist in the past, present, and future. NEW INFLUENCE EARLY CHRISTIAN THOUGHT "Three times." Sage Kanāda Madhyantika (100 – 525 CE) Christianity decriminalized in Rome. (313 CE) Wrote China's first dynastic history. Confucian scholar who wrote Lessons For Women. Fleshing out of basic Christian concepts. The soul, the trinity, & justifying Christian views of science & history. Justin Tertullian Saint Clement of Pan Chou = Iranian Martyr Irenaeus Alexandria (51 CE) MANICHAEISM ZURVANISM (200 CE) (200 CE) Origen Athanasius of Saint Pseudo-Dionysius Alexandria Augustine the Areopagite FOUNDER Unknown THE MIDDLE AGES Mani (5th century - 16th century CE) Classic philosophy was blended with Christian thought or forgotten. Dualistic cosmology pitting the spiritual world of light against the dark material world. Neutral god representing space & time gave birth to two dualistic children. Branch of Zoroastrianism. CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE NEOPLATONISM (375-526 CE) AESTHETIC ZURVANISM FATALISTIC ZURVANISM Нуpatia of Alexandria (250 CE) (250 CE) Boethius Dhouda of Gascony (804 CE) (375 CE) FOUNDER Unknown FOUNDER Unknown Platonic reverence of reason & truth coupled with Christian allegories. Known as the first female writer in Europe. Wrote an ethics book for her son. Belief that Zurvan (god) is undifferentiated time, the material basis for the universe. Zurvan (god) is a limited portion of time, from which events are already preordained. MONASTIC TRADITION (600-1000 CE) MATERIALISTIC ZURVANISM MAZDAKISM Centers of learning through the Dark Ages, men and women led these centers of teaching FOUNDER & scholarship. (250 CE) Belief that the material world (500 CE) (something) could not come from nothing. Denied the existence of a spiritual world from which material was formed. Hroswitha of Gandersheim Hoehenbourg Unknown Hilda Herrad of of Whitby SCHOLASTICISM BHEDABHEDA Mazdak Dualistic cosmology, path to enlightenment describing necessary elements. (1100-1700 CE) (600 CE) Monistic Idealism. The individual self is both different and = Orthodox (Vedic) Advaita Thomas John Duns William of Scotus non-different from the Anselm of Canterbury Peter Abelard Bhäskara Aquinas Ockham Brahman. = Islamic Use of logic, dialectic, & analysis techniques of ancient thinkers to explore theological issues & defend dogma. SUNNI ISLAM SHIA ISLAM SUFISM THE RENAISSANCE (632 CE) (632 CE) (632 CE) (14th-17th century) Beatrice of Nazereth (1200 CE) HUMANISM Ali ibn Abi Tälib E After Muhammad's death, Muslims Unlike other Muslims, Sufis believe they can draw closer to God and embrace (1304-1536 CE) Abu Bakr After Muhammad's who followed Ali ibn Abi Tālib as the first Caliph became known as Shias. death, Muslims who followed Abu Bakr as the first Caliph became known as Sunnis. his presence in this life. Francesco Coluccio Leonardo Poggio Salutati Bruni Lorenzo Valla Isotta Petrarca Bracciolini Nogarola АВНEDA Monistic Idealism. The individual self is not different from the brahman. (700 CE) Adi Shankara Rudolph Agricola Mario Nizolio Petrus Desiderius Niccolo Ramus Juan Luis Vives Erasmus Machiavelli ATHARI MU'TAZILAH S Heightened emphasis on moral philosophy, reform, and the good life instead of purely scholastic Aristotelianism. (850 CE) (750 CE) AVERROISM (1429-1538 CE) Ahmad ibn Hanbal Wasil ibn Ata Strict textual interpretation of the Qu'ran. To engage in rational dispute, even if ending up in truth, is forbidden. Logical depictions of the divine unity. Evil in the world is the fault of human errors. Because of divine unity, the Qu'ran must have been created. Alessandro Elijah del Paul of Venice Nicoletto Vernia Agostino Nifo Achillini Medigo ASH'ARISM MATURIDI Immortality of the soul as justified in Aristotelian texts & commentaries. (900 CE) (900 CE) SCIENTIFIC&SECULAR ARISTOTELIANS (1462-1589 CE) Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari Muhammad Abu Mansur al-Maturidi A scientific look at the intellect as part of the body, development of logic and scientific method. Occasionalism, belief that humans have freedom of intention, knowledge must be revealed, & the assertion that human minds cannot on their own establish truth claims. Occasionalism, human faith does not increase or decrease, but rather his piety. Pietro Jacopo Pomponazzi Zabarella SOCIETY OF JESUS VISHISHTADVAITA AVICENNISM Apply Aristotle to metaphysics & philosophy of law. Laid foundation for the law of nations and the just war Francisco theory. (1492-1617 CE) (1000 CE) (1000 CE) Ramanuja Francisco de Vitoria Pedro Francisco da Fonseca de Toledo Avicenna Suarez Qualified non-dualism. The Brahman alone exists, but it characterized by multiplicity. Over 400 books laying the foundation for medicine & the sciences. Reconciled Aristotelianism & Neo-Platonism. PLATONISM (1360-1547 CE) IRANIAN SCHOOL OF ILLUMINATIONISM AVERROISM (1100 CE) (1155 CE) George Gemistos Bessarion Cardinal Marsilio Giovanni Nicholas of Cusa Ficino Pico della Plethon Mirandola Averroës Recovered Platonic and neoplatonic texts mixed with humanism to provide a new framework through which philosophy led one closer to God. Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi Speculations on light, how it exists at all levels and hierarchies of reality. Light creates immaterial beings, intellects, souls, and physical bodies. Reconciling Aristotelian with Islam. Became an important thinker in medieval Europe. Pietro Judah ben Isaac Bembo Abravanel STOICISM DVAITA DVAITADVAITA Man is responsible for his happiness. The scholarly life and ethical perfection are one, stoicisms ability to work as therapy against distress. (1304-1606 CE) (1200 CE) (1200 CE) EPICUREANISM Francesco Petrarca Justus Shri Madhvacharya Nimbarka Lipsius Dualism. There is a strict distinction between two equally real worlds: one, the Brahman, & two individual people. There are three catagories of existence, they are all seperate, but depend upon the Brahman. (1417-1481 CE) Pleasure consists in pleasure of both the body and mind. Christian pleasure can be good and better than pagan good. SHUDDADVAITA ACHINTYA-BHEDA-ABHEDA Francesco Filelfo Cosma Poggio Bracciolini Raimondi (1500 CE) (1500 CE) SKEPTICISM (1469-1623 CE) The unreliability of the senses Vallabhacharya Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and the inability to justify what is knowledge. Used for attacks on paganism, science, and Aristotelianism. Monism. The soul is The living soul is inextricably linked with Brahman, yet the Brahman, but with one part rendered imperceptible. nature of the link is Giovanni Agrippa von Michel de Pico della Nettesheim Montaigne Francisco Sanches inconceivable to human minds. Mirandola TRANSCENDENT THEOSOPHY NEW NATURAL PHILOSOPHIES (1580 CE) (1473-1639 CE) BAHÁ'Í PHILOSOPHY Mulla Sadra (1800 CE) Oliva Sabuco Nicolaus Bernardino Francesco Telesio Giordano Bruno Copernicus Patrizi Existential notion that "existence precedes essence." "Substantial motion" explains constant change as a characteristic of physial matter. Rejection of Aristotelian science and attempts at a more honest scientific inquiry into the natural world. Bahá'u'lláh Tommaso Margaret Lucas Campanella Cavendish Advocates peace and justice on a global scale. Exegesis of religious texts, many of which were divine messengers well-fitted to their time and place. MODERN PHILOSOPHY NEW CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE NEO-VEDANTA (17th century-20th century) (1800 CE) Non-dualism. Brahman is devoid of categories or dassifications. Focus on rational faith, social reform, national identity. Introduced Unitarian Church/Transcendentalist influences. First woman awarded a doctorate in philosophy. Ram Mohan Roy Helena Lucretia Cornaro Piscopia (1646 CE) EASTERN EARLY FEMINIST PHILOSOPHY WESTERN (17th century-19th century) As a small minority of women were allowed to obtain education, and live semi-autonomously, critiques of politics and power structures were written by women. Gabrielle Suchon Mary Astell Catherine Olympe de Macaulay Gouges Anna Doyle Wheeler Judith Jenny Poinsard d'Hericourt Sophia Mary Wollstonecraft Sargent Murray RATIONALISTS (1596-1716) EMPIRICISTS (1632-1776) Theories of knowledge should be grounded in experience and physical evidence. Sensory perception is involved in the formation of ideas, rather than innate notions. Rene Baruch Nicolas Gottlieb Descartes Spinoza Malebranche Leibniz A response to scholasticism through skepticism. Ordinary methods of science and reasoning are fallible but not false. John Locke George Berkeley David Hume POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY (1588-1975) Rethought the need for political structures, discussed what makes a government good, what rights and freedoms we have, & Friedrich Hannah Thomas Hobbes Jean-Jacques Jeremy Rousseau John James John Stuart Karl Locke Bentham Mill Mill Marx Engels Arendt what duties citizens have. GERMAN IDEALISM (1724-1924) Eleanor Marx Related to skepticism in the assertion that reality is but a construct of our mind, and probably immaterial. Immanuel Kant Johann Gottlieb George W. Friedrich W. Friedrich Joseph Schelling Нegel Arthur Francis Schopenhauer Herbert Bradley Fichte EXISTENTIALISTS (1813-1980) PRAGMATISM (1839-2007) Soren Friedrich Karl Gabriel Martin Marcel Heidegger Jean-Paul Sartre Kierkegaard Wilhelm Jaspers Nietzsche Charles Sanders Peirce William James Richard Rorty S Experiences of the individual are central. Moral & scientific thinking are not enough, a further set of categories based on authenticity is necessary. John Dewey The function of thought is not to describe, represent or mirror reality, instead thought is a tool for prediction, action, & problem solving. PHENOMENOLOGY (1859-1961) MAOSIM ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY 1920 CE (1848-1970) Edmund Martin Maurice Husserl Heidegger Merleau-Ponty Mao Zedong Creating a scientific and objective-centered method for looking at topics normally regarded as subjective. Namely, our experiences & consciousness. Gottlob Bertrand George Edward Moritz Schlick Ludwig Carnap Wittgenstein Rudolf Marxist-Leninist Frege thought tailored to China. Russell Moore EASTERN Emphasis on clarity, formal logic, analysis of language, and the natural sciences. ST. LOUIS HEGELIANS (1860's) One of the first philosophical groups in America, examined German Idealism & contained a number of the first American women Marietta Kies William Henry Torrey Harris Brokmeyer Grace C. Bibb Susan philosophy professors. Blow PROCESS PHILOSOPHY (1839-2000) ORDINARY LANGUAGE PHILOSOPHY (1889-1976) Charles Alfred North Alan Pierce S Push to eschew traditional philosophical theories. Belief that traditional Susanne Robert M. Charles Whitehead Watts Langer Pirsig Hartshorne philosophical programs are rooted in linguistic mistakes committed by philosophers. Remedied by the way words are used in everyday use. Identified metaphysical reality with change & development. Rather than change as accidental, things are real through "becoming." Gilbert Ludwig Wittgenstein Austin J.L. Ryle CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY MYRIAD TYPES PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY ANALYTIC METAPHYSICS PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE EPISTEMOLOGY AESTHETICS POST-STRUCTURALISTS POSTANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY (1901-2009) (1908-present) WV. Jacques Lacan Claude Levi-Strauss Deleuze Jacques Derrida Donald Davidson Richard Michel Foucault Hilary Putnam Gilles Quine Rorty One major theme is the instability of the human sciences. Humans are exceedingly complex, and it is impossible to escape human structures so as to study them. Closely associated to American pragmatism. Advocates a detachment from objective truth with an emphasis on utility, convention, and social progress. WWW.SUPERSCHOLAR.ORG www.iep.utm.edu • plato.stanford.edu • www.iep.utm.edu/greekphi/#H1 • www.iep.utm.edu/damon www.iep.utm.edu/pythagor • www.iep.utm.edu/leucippu • www.iep.utm.edu/protagor www.iep.utm.edu/gorgias • www.iep.utm.edu/stoicism • www.iep.utm.edu www.women-philosophers.com • www.plato.stanford.edu YOU'BY FOCUS LEGEND FOCUS SNJ03 SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT FOCUS FOCUS FOCUS FOCUS FOCUS SNJ03 FOCUS KEY BUDDHIST TERMS SNJ03 SNJ0J FOCUS SN30J

Comprehensive History of Philosophy

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We’ve learned a lot through out three-part history of philosophy graphic series. What started out as a look at the traditional western trajectory of philosophy, starting with the pre-socratics and e...

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