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10 Historical Planners

For thousands of years, human beings have grappled with urban design, accommodating a growing population on a finite amount of land while maintaining aesthetic appeal and sustainability. Learn how some of history's best-known planners have shaped today's most famous cities. 10 Historical Planners Hippodamus of Miletus (498-408 BCE) Major Contributions: Said to have pioneered urban planning, devising a grid-based street system known today as the Hippodamian plan of city layouts. City: Piraeus, Athens Claim to Fame: First known Greek city planner Originated the concept of the "ideal city," which would house 50,000 people and divide land into 3 categories: Sacred Private Public Sir Christopher Wren Major Contributions: After the Great Fire of 1666 destroyed over 13,600 buildings in London, Wren emerged with a completely new design of the city. His plan was ultimately abandoned in favor of quick reconstruction; (1632-1723) City: London, UK Claim to Fame: St. Paul's Cathedral and the reconstruction of London however ... Wren oversaw the rebuilding of >50 of London's most iconic structures, including: St. Paul's Cathedral The Old Royal Naval College (formerly Greenwich Hospital) Kensington Palace Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II (1688-1743) Major Contributions: Ruler of the former kingdom of Amber. He designed the new capital of Jaipur as a modern commercial hub, in City: Jaipur, India Claim to Fame: Creation of Jaipur, a planned accordance with ancient Vedic architectural capital city principles. Jai Singh II was also an astronomer who built a number of medieval observatories known as the Jantar Mantar in Jaipur, Delhi and elsewhere. Pierre Charles L'Enfant Major Contributions: Envisioned a grand European-style capital with egalitarian principles for the fledgling United States, an idea that did not please many city authorities. (1754-1825) City: Washington, D.C. Claim to Fame: Conceptualizing America's new capital city Although L'Enfant's entire design was never realized, many fixtures of Washington D.C. are part of his legacy, including: Capitol Hill The National Mall Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. (1870-1957) Major Contributions: Built on his father's legacy of landscape architecture. Championed landscape architecture and urban planning education. He was also a key player in City: Various Claim to Fame: Founded the first school of urban planning and landscape architecture at Harvard in 1898; created the National Park Service establishing the Annual National Planning Conference. Frederick Law Olmsted Jr's father, is widely Olmsted also oversaw park development in many U.S. considered to be one of the premier urban designers of the second half of the nineteenth cities and wrote the key legislation establishing the century. He designed a number of new communities that lead the way for sanitation and integrated design, and was one of the visionaries behind the concept of Urban Open Spaces. In partnership with Calvin Vaux, Olmsted Sr. designed Central Park in New York City. National Park Service in 1916 Daniel Burnham (1846-1912) Major Contributions: Built some of the world's first skyscrapers. Created urban plans for Chicago, Washington, D.C., Cleveland, San Francisco, and Manila. Some say he invented urban planning. Cities: Various Claims to Fame: Directed construction of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago Famous quote: "Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men's blood ... World's first Ferris wheel, 1893 World's Columbian Exposition Sir Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928) Major Contributions: Influenced of suburban residential areas with his book, Garden Cities of Tomorrow (1902). design City: Letchworth Garden City and Welwyn Garden City, UK Claim to Fame: Establishment of the "Garden City" movement The Garden City ideal places residences, shops, and parks in close proximity surrounded by a belt of open space and agricultural land Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann (1809-1892) Major Contributions: The Paris of today owes its instantly recognizable grands boulevards to Baron Haussmann, who was appointed by Napoleon III to modernize the city's layout. City: Paris, France Claim to Fame: Reconstruction of Paris New city parks Haussmann's reforms included: Widening of Parisian streets to improve traffic flow - and prevent future revolutionary barricades An updated water supply and sewer system Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret) (1887-1965) Major Contributions: Widely hailed as a major figure of modern architecture, his principles have influenced urban residential design for decades. He aimed to resolve the issues of inadequate urban housing in the early 20th century. City: Chandigarh, India Claim to Fame: Rethinking urban housing design and modernist architectural principles His "City Beautiful" layout can His architectural principles include: IIL be seen in Chandigarh, India Rooftop gardens Raised structures Open floor plans Harland Bartholemew Major Contributions: America's first full-time city planner; hired first by Newark, NJ, in 1914 and hired by St. Louis, MO, in 1916. He contributed to major urban planning legislation, including the Housing Act of 1949. (1889-1989) City: Newark, NJ, and St. Louis, MO Claim to Fame: First full-time city planner in the United States His consulting firm, Harland Bartholomew >500 U.S. cities and Associates, created plans for each building represents 10 U.S. cities 60% With the world's urban population projected to reach by 2030, urban planners face a whole new set of challenges in the 21st century. Learn how you can shape the cities of tomorrow: visit Sources Levy, J. (2003). Contemporary Urban Planning, (6th Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. pg., 29. Larson, Erik. The Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair That Changed America. New York, NY: Vintage Books, 2004. 256&sid-21102051357077 .......

10 Historical Planners

shared by mrchibolin on Aug 28
This illustration focuses on history's top urban planners that have developed cities that still thrive and function today. From an Ancient Greece city planner, to the designers of London, Paris and D....


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