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The Future of Alternative Fuels

of The fulure ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES= No longer are you restricted to choosing between petrol and dlesel when purchasing a vehlcle. Most dealershlps now offer a spectrum of alternative fuel motors, Including hybrld, electric and hydrogen-powered designs. But Just whlch one Is best for you? M ELECTRIC VEHICLES Or It's difficult to plnpolnt the exact date when the first electric vehlcle was Invented. However, here are the major mllestones In the car's rich history: Ányos Jedlik invented a Sibrandus Stratingh model car which received its 1828 created an electromagnetic power from an electric motor. prototype cart. -1835 Robert Anderson invented Thomas Davenport built a an electric-powered vehicle, 1839 small-scale electric vehicle. From these early foundations, electric vehicles continued to develop during the late 19th century: Sir David Salomon created an electric prototype vehicle, which William Morrison 18 70 featured a light electric credited with inventing motor but was hampered by substantialy heavy the first practical 1891 electric vehicle - a six- storage batteries. passenger wagon with rechargeable batteries. Petrol and diesel vehicles dominated the motoring scene in the 20th century, though electric vehicles experienced a resurgence at turn of the new millennium: The GM EV1 was unveiled. Revolutionary electric vehicle 1996 The car had a travel range manufacturer smart enters the of between 70 and 90 2000 UK's automobile scene. miles and was only in production until 1999. O smart The G-Wiz is released by Indian car maker REVA 2001 Tesla Motors founded, with the aim of proving that 2003 electric vehicles had a place in the automobile market. Tesla Roadster released. The vehicle was capable o f TESLA 2008 achieving a 245-mile range on a single charge, and go from 0 to 60 mph in 3.7 seconds. Mitsubishi I-MIEV 2009 launched across Europe. Citroen C-Zéro revealed at the 8th Brussels Motor Show. 2010 The Peugeot iOn is released. Nissan Leaf 2011 launched in Europe. Tesla Model S released. The sedan can travel from Renault enters the electric O to 60 mph in 4.2 seconds 2012 vehicle market with the and has a 265-mile range Fluence Z.E and the on a single charge. Kangoo Z.E. 2013 Production of the all-new Ford Focus Electric begins. This is the first full-electric vehicle that Ford has manufactured in Europe 2013 SALES FIGURES RENAULT ZOE 8,500 8.200 MITSUBISHI OUTLANDER KWH VOLVO V60 PLUG-IN 7,580 NISSAN LEAF 6.160 4,620 TOYOTA PRIUS PLUG-IN UNDER THE BONNET Electric vehicles are usually made up of an electric motor a controller, the batteries and a charging system. ELECTRIC MOTOR CONTROLLER BATTERY & CHARGING SYSTEM Electric motors come in two setups: AN AC MOTOR A DC MOTOR These have a regeneration feature. These are usually less expensive than When a motorist presses the brakes, AC motors and can be overdriven, in the motor acts as a generator to provide order to achieve greater bursts of power to the vehicle's batteries. acceleration for short periods. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES v They do not use petrol or diesel, * Charging can be time- so are cheaper to run. consuming. Currently, calling v As a result, they give off zero into a petrol station is a lot emissions. quicker than fully charging your vehicle. v Charging is becoming much * The complex setup means easier. BMW, for example, has electric vehicles are often developed LED street lights heavier than vehicles with that can quickly charge an traditional engines. electric vehicle's batteries while it is parked. H. HYDROGEN VEHICLES Just like with electric vehlcles, the Ideas that have helped shape the hydrogen vehlcles of today can be traced back to the 19th century. Francois Isaac de Rivaz created a four-wheel The Hippomobile unveiled 1807 prototype vehicle that was by Etienne Lenoir, with the powered by a combination of vehicle packing a functional oxygen and hydrogen. 1860 internal combustion engine. Norsk Hydro Company modified one of its small 1933 trucks, enabling it to run on hydrogen instead of fuel. Working at GAZ, Boris Shelishch managed to 1941 covert a truck to allow it to Engineer at Allis-Chalmers use hydrogen as a fuel. Manufacturing Company, 1959 Hary Karl Ihrig, uses a 20 horsepower tractor to show off The General Motors (GM) 1966 the world's first fuel cell vehicle. Electrovan created, a fuel cell vehicle powered by hydrogen Daimler-Benz revealed the NECAR 1- short for New Hyundal Tucson 100kw vehicle introduced; a 1994 Electric Car. It was the first hydrogen vehicle capable 2007 vehicle in Europe to be powered of achieving a range of using fuel cells and could be more than 200 miles. used daily working conditions. O HYUNDAI The Hyundai ix35 2013 Hydrogen Fuel Cell vehicle becomes the first series production fuel cell vehicle. 2014 A road-ready version of a hydrogen fuel cell sedan unveiled by Toyota. £11 million of funding announced by UK's Business Minister Matthew Hancock to push forward plans to get hydrogen cars onto UK roads. RELEASE DATES The new generation of hydrogen vehicles are hitting the roads in the months to come, with the latest release schedule below. BMW HYDROGEN 7 HYUNDAI TUCSON HYUNDAI Ix35 FUEL CELL HYDROGEN FUEL CELL 100 vehicles already on Available to lease in Southern loan to selected leading California already. It will be Available to order figures in culture, politics, launched in further regions in the UK now. business and media. when a fuelling infrastructure is successfully put in place AVAILABLE AVAILABLE AVAILABLE TO LOAN TO LEASE TO ORDER LIMITED CALIFORNIA UK TOYOTA HYDROGEN HONDA FCEV FUEL CELL SEDAN Concept has already been shown off at the 2013 Los Preparations being made Angeles International Auto Show. Production model for release in European expected to be released in 2015 across Japan and the US, markets summer 2015. with a launch date for European markets to be confirmed. SUMMER 2015 JAPAN 2015 EUROPE AND USA UNDER THE BONNET Fuel cells are essential for hydrogen vehicles, as they enable the following process: WATER & HEAT 1. Hydrogen and air pass through a fuel cell stack. 2. This results in a chemical reaction. H. JU 3. When a reaction occurs, electrical power is generated. 4. This electrical power provides the vehicle with the momentum required for movement 5. Water and heat are the only by products of the chemical reaction. ENERGY Both are non-polluting elements. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES v Hydrogen fuel is incredibly efficient. * It's not cheap. * Reliance on fossil fuels. v Hydrogen is renewable and Natural gas, coal and oil are readily available. non-renewable sources often v No harmful emissions required for hydrogen to be transformed Into hydrogen fuel. are produced. OTHER ALTERNATIVE FUELS COMPRESSED BIODIESEL ETHANOL NATURAL GAS (CNG) It's a lower-carbon transport fuel. It can be used wherever It's a renewable fuel. It's a renewable fuel. there's a natural gas It can be produced supply and distribution It can be produced domestically. network in place. domestically. It can be created using It can be used instead It can be created from animal fats or of both diesel and petrol. plant materials like corn, vegetable oils. Drivers in Germany, grass and sugar canes. It has similar physical Egypt, Pakistan, It has fewer greenhouse properties to petroleum Argentina and Brazil gas emissions than diesel but achieves can already buy CNG other fuels. cleaner fuel burning. from Shell. SOURCES,frankfurt-motor-showbrief-history-hybrid- and-electric-vehicles-picture-special & estartinventions/a/History-Or-Electric-Vehicles.html techtimes. com/articles/19842/20141110/bmw-street-Ights-may-soon-charge- electric-cars.htm & and-electric-vehkcles-picturespecial & article/151661,sessiont/2004 deer_falrbanks.pdr & Vehicles.htm & history-ofevs/ & ogntwa-palwowe.Info/ Fuel_CelLHEtory_2.pdr PDF titled 'Hybrid Technology in the Vehicles' by Wald Ahmed & electric-vehicles-picture-special & ogniwa-palwowe.Info/ FuelCelLHIistory_2.pdr & electric-vehicles-picture-special & PDF titled "Hybrid Technology in the Vehicles' by Walid Ahmed evs/& Vehcles.htm dcmedia/0-921-882477-1-884208-10-0-0-0-1-1702-0-0--0-0-0-0-0. html,teslas-model-gms-evistory?id=25251899 & the-current-crop-of-electrics/ cars-moving mercedes-benz electric-cars/,technologylemicient_dynamics/phase_2/ dean_energybmwhydrogen_7.html cell-cars-deliverec-to-uk-customers & enthydrogen-tuel-cel us/envir,history-and-culture/history-of-renault/ HydrogenEnergy.php & Advantages_o_Hydrogen_Fuel AboutFord/News/VehicleNews/2013/First- European-bult-Ford-Focus transportenvironmentorg/sites/temles/publications/Electric620 Vehicles%20ln%202013_EXSummary_T%26E.pdr blofuels-aternative-energles-transportcompressed-natural-gas.html & about_6619048_ac-dc-motors-electric-cars.html

The Future of Alternative Fuels

shared by MediaworksUK on May 17
A detailed timeline of both electric and hydrogen vehicles, as well how each concept works and what motoring fans can look forward to in regard to each market in the near future. Vehicles powered by b...


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