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Fuel Efficiency

Fuel Efficiency As the EPA demands 54.5 mpg by 2025, auto manufacturers are focusing on these design and technology challenges to meet standards. 54.5 How the 2025 5.0% O Variable Valve Timing & Lift Auto Industry Can Design Cars for Higher MPGS Optimize the timing and movement of valves to control the flow of fuel and air into an engine at various engine speeds. Used in 94 percent of light-duty vehides in the 2011 model year. 7.5% Cylinder Deactivation Shut down engine cylinders not required for maximum performance. Used in 11.1 percent of light-duty vehides in the 2011 model year. MPG Increase 23.2 134% 12.0% 2012 Direct Fuel Injection Control timing and shape of fuel mist entering the engine cylinder. 5.0% 1 Fuel Savings for Every 10% Weight Reduction Turbocharging Replace heavy iron and traditional steel components with lighter-weight materials to reduce fuel consumption. Optimize lightweight materials for strength, safety and cost. 7.5% Boost engine power by forcing compressed air into engine cylinder. With an extra kick available on demand, smaller engines can become more practical for everyday driving. • Polymer composites • Carbon-fiber composites • Advanced steels 3.6% Waste Heat Harvesting Up to 60 percent of energy wasted by a typical car engine is lost as heat. With the help of semiconductors, that heat can be converted to electricity to run cooling Smooth, Streamlined Shapes 5.0% Enable a car to cut through the air with less resistance, reducing work for the engine-especially at higher speeds. systems and accessories. Optimize shape for minimum wind resistance in balance with safety standards, style and passenger comfort. 6.0% Automated &CV (Continuously Variable) Transmissions Oo Computer controls manage shifting, combining the ease of an automatic transmission with the lighter weight and greater efficiency of a manual. Active Aero Shutters 2.0% Use electronics to automatically open or dose shutters on the grille to minimize wind flow or take in air for cooling as needed. *percentage indicates potential efficiency gain *Engine & Transmission Technologies Body Vehicle Electrification Micro & Mild Hybrids ENGINE Use start/stop system that shuts down engine when vehicle stops, so fuel not lost to idling; also use regenerative braking. START STOP 60 Full & Plugin Hybrids Battery MPG Electric Vehicle Contains supplemental efficient electric powertrain to increase mpg; battery charging with external plugin. Full electric vehide 105 powered only by battery that turns wheels. 98 50 26 Extended-Range Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Electric Vehicde Runs battery electricity until depleted; onboard combustion engine kicks in to recharge battery. Full electric vehicle powered only by fuel cell (usually polymer electrolyte membrane - PEM). Carbon Footprint Better fuel efficiency means a smaller carbon footprint and less pollution. 11.7 7.0 5.0 3.9 Burning 1 gallon of gasoline puts about 20 pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. 15 mpg 25 mpg 35 mpg 45 mpg Tons of CO2 per year for a typical car Saving just 1 ton of CO2 from every car in a year would be like eliminating emissions from 15 coal-fired power plants. Did You Know? SOURCES: Cars today are engineered mostly via computers. U.S. EPA Old Method calculator.htmlifresults CAD Drawings Initial Prototype Testing Design Changes 2012/420s12001a.pdf 2012/420r12001a-appx-cxlsx Prototype Testing Design Changes Prototype "The Changing Car," Automotive News. June 11, 2012. U.S. Department of Energy Testing Confirm Prototype materials/lightweight_materials.html Final Validation Launch Product J.D. Power and Associates pressrelease.aspx?ID=2011018 New Method CAD Drawings CAE Model Optimization via Simulation Purdue University Research harvesting-nanocrystal-coated-fibers/22239/ Confirmation Prototype Final Validation Launch Product Khondge and Sovani "Anaccurate, extensive, andrapid method for aerodynamics optimization: The 50:50:50 method, SAE International Paper 2012-01-0174 Brought to you by Case in point: Computer simulations allow engineers to test thousands more design combinations and choose the one that provides the best mpg. Modern simulation methods allow engineers to determine aerodynamic drag of a car design in as little as one hour, using a supercomputer with 150 cores. For one recent vehide, engineers were able to simulate 50 design alternatives over a single weekend to achieve a 4% reduction in aerodynamic drag. ANSYS visual ly Full hybrid Extended-range EV Battery EV Fuel cell vehide (miles per kg hydrogen)

Fuel Efficiency

shared by visually on Mar 19
As the EPA demands 54.5 mpg by 2025, auto manufacturers are focusing on these design and technology challenges to meet these standards.




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