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Evolution of the Wheel

EVOLUTION of the THE WHEEL "It is not the wheel itself, but the problem of rotation, that's dogged our minds for thousands of years." - John Lienhard, University of Houston ca. 10000 BCE Logs were used as rollers to transport heavy objects. 4000 BCE The potter's wuheel was invented in Iraq ca. 3635–3370 BCE The earliest well-dated depiction of a wheeled vehicle was found on the Bronocice Pof. 3500 BCE Early uheels were wooden discs with a square hole in the middle for an attached axle. In Ancient Irag, wheels were used for Chariots. ca. 3300 BCE The oldest knoun example of a wooden wheel and its axle was found 20 km south of the capital of Slovenia. The wheel had a diameter of 72 centimetres (28 in), made of ash wood. The axle was made of oak. 2500 BCE A depiction of an onager-draun cart on the Sumerian "battle standard of Ur". ca. 2000 BCE Invention of the spoked wooden uheel. A much lighter wheel; first used for War Chariots. It helped the Egyptians build their empire. 1200 BC Egyptian war chariot on a mural in the fomb of Pharaoh Ramesses II. ca. 1000 BCE As wheel making became a skill, wheels became valuable. Their rims were protected with leather, wood and iron. The Celtic chariots introduced the iron 300–100 BCE rim and heavier construction. This design was so successful it remained unchanged for nearly 3000 years. The Wooden Water Wheel Invented by the Greeks, still in use today. 1790s 1800s The Artillery Wheel As artillery grew larger, wooden wheels could no longer take the strain. All metal wheels were introduced, uhich were also used in eary automobiles. The Steam Locomotive Wheel The steam engine required far sturdier wheels than ever before. As metal rims made contact with metal tracks; weights on the wuheel were needed to balance the connecting rod. 1802 Wire Spokes G.F. Bauer registered a patent on the first wire tension spoke. 1845 Pneumatic Tyres John Dunlop improved upon and patented the air filled tire. Today's bike uuheel is the descendent of the wire tension It replaced the hard rubber tires on bicycles. spoke and the pneumatic tyre. 1893 Michelin first fitted a pneumatic tyre to an automobile. Ferris Wheel The Ferris Wheel was 1920s constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr. Steel Rims and Disc Wheels It was put on display as a attraction at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois. Steel Disc Wheels returned to a design that had not been popular for over 4000 years. They were easier to make than spoked wheels. 1952 WHE ORTU The Wheel of Fortune An American game showu that gave everyday people the chance to win cash prizes, by spinning a carnival style uheel on national TV. 1960s Alloy Wheels To reduce the wueight of uheels, manufacturers experimented with alloys of metals to replace steel. Alloy wheels conduct heat better, handle better and look auwesome. 1973 Mecanum Wheels These wheels were designed for robots and vehicles that need to be operated in tight spaces. They allow movement in any direction. The Hubless Wheel A hubless wheel consists of a hollow wheel hub with no axle The Tweel bearing or centre hub. Designed for motorcycles, they require a chain or belt drive to power them. An experimental airless tyre from Michelin uses flexible polyurethane spokes to support an outer rim and replicate the shock-absorbing role of a pneumatic tyre. Active Wheel Developed by Michelin, the Active Wheel system houses an electric motor and suspension inside the hub of the uwheel. SOURCES Cars of Bronocice - www.ma.krakowu.pl Ancient Egyptian Transportation – www.factsanddetails.com The Evolution of the Wheel – An Historical Retrospective - www.ohtm.org The Wheel Revisited – www.uh.edu Reinventing the Wheel (and the Tire, Too) – www.nytimes.com Yours for £33,000: The real-life Tron Lightcycle superbike that can hit speeds of 120mph - www.daiymail.co.uk Michelin Active Wheel [PDF] – wuww.michelin.com 24/7 carfinance

Evolution of the Wheel

shared by jamie.englert on Aug 09
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This infographic looks at the evolution of the Wheel across the ages of man!

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Transportation
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