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Visualizing Mobile Generations: From Analog to 4G Technology

4 Generations of Cellular Standards (1G: Analog Cellular Networks))) 1980 1G technology introduced the use of multiple cell sites, and the ability to transfer calls from one site to the As a cell user moves to the 1981 edge of a cellular site, the tower communicates with nearby cell sites to hand off the call. 1982 next as the user travelled between cells during a conversation. 1983 (((2G: Digital Networks))) 1984 26 systems differed from the previous generation in their use of digital transmission (instead of analog), and also by the introduction of advanced and fast phone- to-network signals. Cell phone use had incredible growth (this era also saw the advent of prepaid cell phones). 1985 First 2G Network 1986 1987 1988 2G also encouraged a trend away from the larger phones, toward tiny 0.25 lb hand-held devices (which soon became the norm). This change was largely related to the higher density of cellular sites caused by increasing usage levels. This decreased the demand for high transmission powers to reach dis- 1989 1990 -Cell phones need a stronger transmitter to reach towers further away. More towers means closer towers, and the 1991 tant towers for customers to be satisfied. ability to use smaller transmitters. 1992 The second generation introduced a new variant to communication, as SMS text mes- saging became possible, initially on GSM networks and eventually on all digital net- works. Paid content such as ringtones became available to cellular subscribers. TXT 1993 1994 Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 1995 GSM is the most popular standard for mobile telephony systems in the world. The GSM Association estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses this 2G standard. Its ubiquity enables interna- tional roaming arrangements between mobile phone operators, providing subscribers the use of their phones in many parts of the world. 1996 1997 1998 1999 GSM is used 3 billion people than 212 countries and territories. across more 2000 by over 2001 (( 3G: High Speed IP Data Networks ) ) )- 2002 The main difference that distinguishes 3G technology from 2G technology is the use of packet-switching (rather than circuit-switching) for data transmission. With the widespread availability of good quality 3G coverage in the mid 2000s, USB dongles for accessing mobile internet on computers were released. 2003 2004 Circuit-switching sends out information (voice or data) in ordered time slots. 2005 I- Internet Packet-switching sends out data (voice is diğitized) as required, in no special order. 2006 Cellular Network Cellular Network 2007 -(((4G: All IP Data Networks ) ) ) 2008 The biggest technological advancement that separates 4G from 3G technology is that it eliminates circuit switch- ing, and employs an all-IP network. All data including normal voice calls is transmitted using packet switch- ing. This type of phone delivers or receives calls over internet, LAN or WAN networks using VolP. 2009 2010 4 Cell Phone Generations Compared Voice Data Standards Technology SMS Switching Switching Data Rates 1G AMPS, TACS Analog No Circuit Circuit N/A 2G GSM, CDMA, EDGE, GPRS Digital Yes Circuit Circuit 236.8 kbps 3G UTMS, CDMA2000, HSPDA, EVDO Digital Yes Cітсuit Packet 384 kbps 4G LTE Advanced, IEEE 802.16 (WiMax) Digital Yes Packet Packet up to 1 Gbps Sources: Wikipedia Information provided by cellphones.org US. Cell Subscribers

Visualizing Mobile Generations: From Analog to 4G Technology

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3G is the short form used for third-generation technology.3G is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology, superseding 2G. It is based on the International Telecommunication Union ...

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