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Kite and Key - Advances in Electrical Engineering

BEYOND THE KITE & KEY Amazing Electrical Experiments That Furthered Engine ering Innovations Gilbert & The Lodestone, 1600 The Lodestone is magnetic iron ore, and by the time William Gilbert was conducting his experiments, its basic magnetic properties were already known. What people did not understand at the time was why magnets worked. A lodestone, or loadstone, is a naturally magnetized piece of magnetite. They are naturally-occurring magnets, which can attract iron. Ancient people first discovered the property of magnetism Gilbert developed an instrument called a versorium with a round lodestone and William Gilbert 1544 - 1603 a suspended metal needle that could pivot freely in response to a magnetic An Engligh physician and philisopher regarded by many as the "Father of Electricity ond Magnetism." He was the first to usc the term "Electricity." field. in lodestone. - wikipedia Crfis Virruty Gilbert connected the way the dip of a versorium varies as it is moved around the round lodestone with the way compass needles change at various points along the surface of the Earth. - utkipedia. org An illustration of Versorium ejecting the notion that Earth was at the center of the universe, he correctly deducted that the Earth is magnetic, publishing his K findings in 1600. du Fay & The Charges of Glass and Amber, 1733 du Fay experiment illustration - Photo courtesy of E Bijliomata Charles du Fay noticed that objects rubbed with glass or amber would sometimes attract He named them Vitreous Electricity - produced when rubbed with glass, and Resinous Electricity - produced Charles du Fay when rubbed with amber. or repel each other, holding electrical charges. 1698 - 1739 Vitreous Electricity later became known as the "Positive Charge," and Resinous Electricity became known as the "Negative Charge." A French chemist who discovered the existence of two types of clectricity, and noted the difference between He discovered that different kinds of electricity attract each other and those with the same Conductors and Insulators. kind of electricity repel each other. C: harles du Fay's 1733 discovery enabled centuries of experiments in electricity and electrical charges. Galvani & The Frog, 1790s Luigi Galvani happened to be lecturing on the frog and conducting experiments using, for instance, an electrostatic generator all in the same laboratory: - Courtesy of Hẹ noticed under some conditions that the dissected legs of the frogs would seem to jump to life, such as when a scalpel was placed against an exposed nerve and the table had been previously used for the electrostatic experiments. Luigi Galvani 1737 - 1798 Galvani çame to the conclusion that there was an electrical fluid Italian physician famous for pioncering Bioelectricity and Elactrophysiology. inherent in the body of animals, which he published in 1791. Metel touching the frog's nerve *Galvani vs Volta Other researchers, like Volta, disagreed with his theories, arguing that an electric current was possible between two different metals, such as the scalpel, rather than an inherent electricity Muzeuler contractions occur becouse of an electrie current inherent in the body of the animal Metal touching the frog's muscle The flow of electricity that produced the frog's muscular contractions originated from the bi-metal are itself Both men were partially correct - muscular contractions occur due to clectrical stimuli and currents flow Galvani's Theory Volta's Theory between two dissimilar metals - Ilustration reproduced from academic. brooklyn.cuary, edu T: oday, many advances in medical science involving electrical activity in the brain and heart are possible due to Galvani's experiments. Volta & The Voltaic Pile, 1800 After Galvani's experiments were published, Alessandro Volta disagreed with Galvani's theory, instead suggesting a theory that 2 different types of metals with any kind of moist material between Volta's theory led him to develop the Voltaic Pile, alternating discs of copper and zinc with pasteboard or dampened cloth between them. them could produce electricity. By varying the number of units, Volta could increase or decrease the amount of electricity Pve pasiur Alessandro Volta 1745 - 1827 elece -Carivre Andelle Zine Italian physicist known for the invention of Battery and discovery of Methane. He also improved on the Voltaic Pile by attaching a wire to the end of the pile One unit was made of 3 discs - 1 copper, 1 board, 1 zinc – and each of the units was negarr an electric cell that The Voltaic Pile Fig. 283. - Pile de Volta. generated a current. - wikipedia. org - -A dry cell battery, aEs org he Voltaic Pile has been improved in many ways over the years, ultimately developing into the small battery we know today. Henry & Electromagnetism, 1831 Joseph Henry conducted many experiments on electromagnetism, leading to multiple inventions and innovations. - htp://members.kos net Joseph Henry 1797 - 1878 He is thought to be the first to discover the mechanics that made the telegraph feasible American scientist known for Electromagnetic Induction, He showed that an electro- and inventions like the magnet using 2 electrodes attached to a battery should use several coils of wirę winded in parallel, but an electromag- net using multiple batteries should use only one coil. Doorbell precursor and Electric Relay - Lwikimadia. org Henry's invention only oscillated back and forth tillr. He continued to improve on this work and by 1831 he Created one of the first machines to use electromag- netişm for motion, thus developing the first electric motor. rather than rotate, but it was a considerable step and is the earliest ancestor of the modern DC motor The first electric motor - n recognition of his work and for being the first to discover self induction and mutual induction, the standard electrical unit of inductive resistance is called the henry (H). Brush & The Dynamo, 1878 Charles Brush dreamed of creating an electric street lamp with arc lighting, but needed to develop a more efficient means of generating electricity in order to do so. - zwura The Brush dynamo He created his first dynamo in 1876, which was powered with Charles Brush 1849 - 1929 a horse-drazwn treadmill Solenoid Limit Screw A Ring Clutch In Order to als0 makę hiş arç lighting more practical, Brush added a "ring clutch" to limit the movement of the carbon electrodes, thus providing a better regulating system. American inventor, Carbon Holder entrepreneur and philanthropist. Known for the invention of Arc Lamp. The Ring Clutch Carbon >lectrodes - lafaore us в With both the dynamo and ring clutch in place, Brush was able to install a series of commercial arc lamps, stunning the public at the bright light the electric lamps offered over the old gas lamps. The Brush lamps - edisontechcenter org Н: Te made additional improvements by designing a double-carbon arc lamp that would burn through two pairs of carbons, doubling the operation time of the lamps. Bell & The Wire, 1876 When Alexander Graham Bell was a teenager, he noticed that a piano chord struck in one room was This observation led him to the realization that chords can be transmitted through the air echoed by a piano in another room. He first set out to create a multiple telegraph that would convey multiple messages simultaneously at different pitches, but quickly concluded that reproducing sound waves in a continuous, undulating Alexander Graham Bell 1847 - 1922 current over a wire could apply to human speech. Was an eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical Telephone. - Mr. Bell conducting variqus acoustics experiments at MIT, 1874 - "Mr. Watson, come here. I want to see you. ' Bell's first telephone, 1876 Bell went on to complete several more advances the next On March 10th, 1876, Bell completed his Ist successful experiment with the telephone, uttering the famous line year, expanding the distance between which calls made on telegraph wires could be made to 143 miles. - T: he technology Bell created was the foundation for today's telecommunications industry. Edison & The Filament, 1879 When Thomas Edison set out to create indoor electric lighting, his greatest challenge was finding the right filament – durable, but would burn - stc.ugfedue in a vacu um. Edison had his own glass blowing shed to create the many bulbs he would use to experiment over 3,000 theories on developing an incandescent lamp. Sig 4. Thomas Edison 1847 - 1931 American inventor and businessman. A prolific inventor known for his practical Light Bulb - In 1879, Edison successfully Created the first light bulb, but it only burned for a few hours due to the thin platinum filament used The carbonized cotton thread Sigh - In his endeavor to improve, he tested thousands of materials to use as a filament Edison electric bulb patent, January 27, 1880 - He tried carbonizing all sorts of materials including over 6,000 plant fibers before he found success with carbonized cotton thread, which burned for about 15 hours - wikigadia. org H: e considered using tungsten, which is used today, but was unable to work with the material given the tools available at the time. Kilby & The Semiconductor, 1958 Vacuum tubes dominated However, although transistors were much smaller, more reliable, and consumed less power than vacuum tubes, the Creation of complex electronic circuits was still plagued by the "tyranny of numbers" of the numbers of small intercon- - and limited – the electronics industry until transistors were invented in 1947. nected components required to creatę the circuits. - In Order to form the circuits, transistors, diodes, rectifiers, capacitors, and wires all had to be hand-soldered, which was costly, time-consuming, and unreliable. Jack Kilby 1923 - 2005 - - American electrical Vacuum Tubes Transistor engineer who took part in the realization of Integrated Circuit. He won the Nobel Prize in Kilby concluded that a semiconductor was all that Physics in 2000. He is also the inventor of Handheld Calculator and was necessary and all components could be made of a single material, thus creating a complete circuit Thermal Printer. - Copyright, Texas Instruments The world's first Integrated Circuit Modern IC n 1958, he debuted the world's first integrated circuit and microchip, I a sliver of germanium with protruding wires glued to a glass slide. CREDITS WlNam Gibart: SOURCES Ang://uwu laforn u3/brush/brupkbla htm Ang://un mit. ada/invent/Aga/grokam_ball.Ami Ang://uwa d. com/eop/does/ilyetr/jenckbutilt phtm! kng://iroentors kng://chamed.sham.purdus ada/gencham/history/elactricig.kam! kng://uwamognat fu ada/adusation/tutorials/pioners/gibart.itnd Ang://uwumegnat. fou. adu/adlucation/hutorials/plonaery/galsanf Atm! Ang://uw Ang://wwumegnat. fou.adu/aducation/hutorials/mugeum/splapliepila.htm! Ang://langbn. og tel Cebenndfonkm ry hng://ua lge go/eglactign/ ång://uau fi edu lacra/se-sach/edigon-igitjulb/acinon-ighroul phpasty=alactricity Cilpdrt S7C Lodestona: Cherias du Pey du Py axpartmant: Laigi Gebent: Aleszondro Tte: Josuph Hanry: Cheriay Brupk Alevonder Grahom Ball Zhomas Ediron: Josk Aliy: 66ssath.som kimadie. org atcagtada atcagfadu agh-raptfon OHIO /outrepsh/history/historieyites/hamryfon UNIVERSITY f ginering groham-bell-popen/cdgat-this-agllerlon/

Kite and Key - Advances in Electrical Engineering

shared by andrewdeen on May 29
The electrical research event most people know of is Benjamin Franklin’s Kite & Key. The legend goes that Benjamin Franklin tied a key to a kite and flew that kite in a lightning storm to prove elec...




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