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How Algorithms Change the World

HOW ALGORITHMS changed the world.. • An algorithm is:"a set of instructions for solving a problem or performing a task.. entry 300 BC the EUCLIDIAN (GCDI greatest common ALGORITHM divisor of two numbers. COMPUTATIONALLY EFFICIENT and still used by computers today Procedure for finding the 820 EUCLID the Greek mathematician the Currently the method of QUADRATIC choice to factor very large ALGORITHM composite numbers with no smal. factos. A method for solving quadratic equations 1957 Al-Khwarizmi the Persian mathematician the First high-level FORTRAN programming COMPILER language The compiler algorithm conveits program instructions into machine code 1965 Attsbution: National Labostery the One of the world's FAST FOURIER most widely used TRANSFORM algorithms Breaks down irregular signals into pure sine-wave components 1998 pure sine-wave irregular signals Offers a way to search the internet's PAGERANK vast repository of information Sergey Brin and Larry Page found a way to assign a rank to every page *1 Operating Systems digital bytes would not exist without the use of algorithms. OS Original OS Examples Boch intended to keep precise ORIGINS OF THE OS LIE IN OUR EARLIEST HISTORY: not the last few decades is the glue between the user BABYLONIAN ABACUS INCA QUIPU O GUI Computers became more widely used in ACADEMIA. 1970's & 1980's The familiar user-friendly Os emerged. Able to talk to one another 1980's & 1990's Microsoft and Apple drove the evolution of the desktop GUI OS. Microprocessor tech evolved enough for creation of powerful desktop computers #2 Internet & Communications WITHOUT ALGORITHMS, there would be no World Wide Web would not exist without the use of algorithms. Two of the most famous, world changing algorithm based programs: TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol - Defines how the internet transmits data HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol - Underlies the Www and played a large part in the Internet's mid-gos breakthrough 1969 ARPANET DEVELOPED a four-node, packet-switched network TCP/IP DEVELOPED proposed as the new set of protocols 1974 "The most basic bit of 'science' in current networks is the discovery that packet switching actually works, TCP/IP BECAME THE STANDARD MIT'S Clark told the E-Commerce Times UNDERPINNING TODAY'S INTERNET used by hundreds of millions worldwide Number of active Web sites on the Internet today: 150,000,000 #3 Search & Locate Google! GOOGLE SEARCH ENGINE defines the way in which millions of people find information. Search the wob using Googlel 10 results Google Search Pm foeing lucky | Index contains -25 million pages (soon to be much bigger) WHAT DOES IT DO? About Google! Searches the Web using keywords. Assigns a page rank to each page based on several factors. ie. How many times keywords appear on the page. Stanford Search Linux Search Get Googlel updates morthyl your emal Subscbe Archie HOW DOES IT WORK? Automated programs called spiders or crawlers travel the Web. Copyright O1997-8 Stanford University Spiders move from link to link building up an index page for keywords. HUMBLE BEGINNINGS Google references the index when a user enters a search query. 1998 Google searches/day - 10,000 Google indexed 26 Million web pages shaogle no lo is those GOOGLE EST. 3 BILLION 1999 Google searches/day - 500,00o0 DAILY SEARCHES REVOLUTIONIZED 2011 Google indexed over 1 Trillion web pages THE MEDIA WORLD SOON Google may have a googol worth of pages in just a few years GPS Global Positioning System They wanted to be able to find out their SAT NAVS (GPS) ARE A FASCINATING OFFSHOOT OF THE US MILITARY 2 MAJOR ALGORITHM position of their units display maps on a computer. d the ability to BASED FUNCTIONS for GPS. The ability to use the GPS satellites to work out where the unit is situated. The ability to determine the shortest distance from point A to point B. GPS STARTED OUT AS A US AIR FORCE SYSTEM TO HELP DETERMINE AFTER KAL 007 AIRLINER DRIFTED INTO SOVIET RESTRICTED AIRSPACE, THE POSITION OF ANY RECEIVER TO AN ACCURACY OF 15 METERS. Regan promised to make GPS available for civilian use. Positioning algorithm's function: 30 satellites, 000000•00000•.• in Earth's orbit, transmit the same information at the same time. 000000.00000... The GPS unit uses time and the speed of light to calculate location *4 Military SMART BOMB GUIDANCE JDAM EMPLOYS AN OPTIMAL JDAM Joint Direct Attack Munition bombs into all-weather "smart" munitions Guidance kit that converts unguided GUIDANCE ALGORITHM Adaptively computes minimal control maneuvers required to impact the target at the desired DoD LEVEL ENCRYPTION CODES flight path and approach angle. Sometimes, algorithms that change the world arise not as research for its own sake, but to answer a pressing need. Such as encryption. Computations continuously control JDAM's autopilot, which also adjust horizontally and vertically. ENCRYPTION WAS CREATED To DEFEND AGAINST CODE-BREAKERS Code-breakers seek to steal or eavesdrop on vital data. 1977 ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM, RSA, EVOLVED TO SAFEGUARD CODE RSA named after inventors Rivest, Shamir and Adleman. RSA and it's descendants play a critical role in today's Internet-heavy environment. CRYPTOGRAPHY CIS Cryptographic Interoperability Strategy FA Developed to increase assured rapid sharing within the US and between allies Common public standards, protocols, algorithms and modes are used, known as S.3. (Secure Sharing Suite) Implementation of CIS facilitates the development of broader secure cryptographic products Provides warfighters on the battlefield, ability to share time-sensitive info securely Enables the gov't to share intelligence info securely with State and local First Responders NSA SUITE A These algorithms play a NSA SUITEBhuge role in keeping our country secure Unpublished Cryptography algorithm Published Cryptography algorithm Suite A contains both classified and unclassified algorithms. INCLUDES CRYPTOGRAPHIC ALGORITHMS FOR: Key exchange Digital signatures Hashing Encryption ALGORITHMS HAVE THE POWERTO CHANGE THE Whatever the purpose, COURSE OF HISTORY They can be found everywhere you look Linking structure on the Web Inner workings of automobiles Intricacies of stock market exchanges algorithms will continue to shake up the status quo. The greatest algorithm we take for granted. One of the most influential and neglected algorithms: One that Synchronized all clocks on the Presented by: Dave Mills University of Delaware hpw.enianwtote.comcion te N NOWSOURCING th ayh e. .09asoo h w.echada.comuitewsc.oh tow. p delee oelseselee sed-in

How Algorithms Change the World

shared by NowSourcing on Jan 25
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If it weren't for algorithms we wouldn't have operating systems or the internet. This infographic highlights how algorithms changed the world.


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