History of Technologies That Made iPhone Possible

IPHONE HOW DID WE GET THERE? Science and technology history from ancient times to the iPhone era 75%O 9.41 9:41 Wi-Fi Messaceo Caland Monday, June 29 Camera YT Now >> Battery Reminda ProasVres Came Cert Nawnstand Tunes Stoe Ajen Bue Mere Settinas Mtat HUFF POST LCD display TechCunch Macumen Touchscreen lide to unlock Engadoe Mal Computing Internet & WW aIGA DE 16:29 DS 2007 IOS & IPHONE O /SEVICES /AOUT /CA 2000 E Ericsson Mobile aCommunications: Ericsson R380 (mobilo phone + PDA, the first device marketed as a 'smartphone') 4 TIME LINE 2001 1996 E 1985 = 1989 2020 Dennis Jennings the National Science Barry Shein: The World (the first commercial dalup ISPY Apple Inc, Pod * Nokia: Nokia 9000 Communicator 1993 1989 Foundation Network (NSFNet) (Internet backbone) 1989 I 2000 D Sharp Corporation and J-Phone: J-SH04 (the lirst CDD-based camera phone with the ablity to send photos electronically) Apple Inc., Apple's fouch-capable Newton PDA • Atari Corporation: Atari Portfolio (the world's first palmtop computer) 1983 Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau: the rst successlul communication between HTTP irvention of the World Wide Wob) -1991 OO Apple Inc., Macintosh Portable 1991 Paul Mockapetris and Jon Postel: Domain Name System (DNS) 1984 = Sony and Asahi Kasei the first commercial lithlum-lon battery 2014 Phone 6 2013 Phone 5S IPhone 5C 1982= Planening 1990 David Patterson and Carlo H. Sequin: 1985 = the Berkeley RISC project (optimized processor design) 1985 O • Jon Postel: Simple Mail Protocol (SMTPI 2000 E 2012 Phone 5 m 1991 Samsung Electronics: SCH-V200 (The first cell phone with a built-in camera) Bill Gates: Windows 1.0 Jef Raskin: Apple Macintosh computer In Plane Sitching PS) tochnology patent 2011 IPhone 45 Akira Yoshino: the firet prototype of the lithium-lon battery used for cellular phone and notebook computer etc. Giesecke & Devrient D the first SIM card Steve Furber, Sophie Wilson: ARM processor architecture 1980 = 2010-2011 IPhone 4 1997 1973 E 1997 = 2008-2009 IPhone 3G 1979 Motorola, Inc., Motorola 68000 microprocessor IBM: IBM 334O Direct Accens Storage Facility, aka Winchester (loday's standard HDD design) • Robert Metcalfe, David Boggs. Chuck Thacker, and Butler Lampson: Ethernet Vic Haves: 1984 Phillippe Kahn: the first camera phone solution sharing pictures instantly on public networks 2007 IPhone the 802.11 standard 1983 = 2007 USA Apple inc. -. Sony Corp. and Philips: Mobile WMAX (AG LTE Advanced (4G 1992 1974 + BBC 1983 + Michael M. Thackeray and John Goodenough: usage of manganese spinel as a oositive electrode material Friedhelm Hillebrand Bernard Ghillebaert: SMS concept 1972E International Talesemmni • ecommunication Union: X.25 protocol BAO BOVE Brown, Boveri & CM 1992 John O'Sulvan: WLAN 1976 = Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie: the C superdwisted nematic display patent, CSIRO SI Eric R. Fossum: CMOS active pixel image sensor ("camera on-a-chip) EDGE 1973 Steve Wozniak and 1994 Steve Jobs: the Apple single-board computer programming language 1981 1973 I 2000 UMTS (3GI, GPRS George William Gray: .. The IBM Simon the first touch screen phone. first smarnphone 1971 E SI 1993 Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn: TCPIP protocol suite Louis Pouzin: Cyclades (the first network to make the hosts responsble for the reliable delivery of data) 1981 8 2000 USA AT&T Mobity 8 2000 USA Vorizon Communications $ 1995 Gemay Duutscha Talokom AG 8 1004 Gomary T-Moble US 2 1992 USA Sprint Corporton 8 1900 Gemany TMoble Intemational AG 19M S. Korea Samsung Elactronics 1975 Ed Roberts: Altair 8800 (the first. commercial portable microcomputer) Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin, and Stanley Mazor: Intel 4004 (he first commercial microprocessor) crystals (corroct stability and temperature properties for LCDS) 1983 E Newton Apple's touch-capable aas ag PDA - IBM: NIM S100 (the tirst commercial portable microcomputer) Sony Corporation: Sony Mavica (he first commercial electronic sl camera Martin Cooper Motorola DynaTAC (the first cell phone to be offered 1980 I 1972 = 1972 - Chuck Peddle and Bill Mensch: MOS Technology 6502 Bbit miopro nepensive 1970 + E Rachid Yazami: the reversible electrochemical intercalation of lithium in graphite (graphite electrodel Vint Cert and Jon Postel: The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) 1976 = OSM2 19gae Frand Radkoirja 1983 Niklaus Wirth: Pascal (programming language) T Peter Brody: frst active-matrix liquid-crystal display panel commercially 1986 USA US Sprirt 1985 USA NaKT, Inc.; Qualcomm 1984 USA Atan Corporation 8 1984 USA Bll Alantic 8 1983 USA ATST Inc. 1983 USA GTE Sprint 1976 USA Apple Computer, inc. 1975 USA Moroft Corp. Hewlett-Packard: HP-150 (one of the world's garliest commercial touchscreen computers) 1976 O 1968 = Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie UNIX operating The National Reconnaissance Office: KH-11 KENNAN (the frst electroric imaging satollite) Elizabeth J. Feinler: The system Natwork n Center Information Alan Kay Dynabook (the concept of portable computor) 1979 OE 1982 E• Kazuo Hashimoto first prototype of a caller ID display device 1965E + OL6! 1975 Koichi Mizushima and John Goodenough: (LICOO)a positive electrode material Martin Schadt and Wolfgang Helfrich twisted nematic effect Jower power consumption LCDS for portable devices) 1971 AMP Nimish Mehta: the first human-controlled multitouch device 1972 = 1946 • James T. Russell: the concept of optical digital recording and playback (CDAVD echnology) * Norm Hardy and LaRoy Tymes: Tymnet public network Steven J. Sasson: the first digital camere 1874 China Foeconn 1972 USA United Tolocom John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert: ENIAC est generalpurpose Amos E Jo 1964 E 1972 EK 1971 USA Microwave Communications, Inc 1070 USA Southen Pacific Communications Co 1000 USA ARPANET; MOS Technology, Inc. 19 USA Intol Corporstion 8 1907 Finland Nokia Corporaton 1964 USA Impovod Mobile Tekotoos 1975 mechanism for handoff in cellular communication 1970 ET IBM, Systems0 ******** John a. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz: BASIC (programming language) electronic digital computer) Michael Francis Tompsett: patent 1968 E Freddie Wliame and Tom Kiburn: Wiiams-Kilbum tube (first RAM device M Stanley W usage of titanium disulfide 1968 E on charge fransfer imaging devices Dr. G. Samuel Hurst: (compact, Jow Dower, high portor- resistive touchecreens University of Kentucky 1969 = George H. Heilmel first operational liquid-crystal display and the concopt of intercalation mance and low cost solid-state intrared imagear) Theodore Paraskevakos, method of caller's number transmition to the receiver's device (Caller ID technology) 1962 = Lawrence Roberts - Leonard Kleinrock, 1973 1945 E Tom Kilburn: Atlas (supercomputer with many modern architectural concepts) 1969 D= gronu sntce 8 1903 UK Maroni Company Ltd 8 1963 UK Microwavo Communications, Inc. 1968 USA DARPA - 1057 USA Sputnk I satue 1957 USA Fairchild Samioonductor Bent Stumpe: transparent. Gapacitive touch screen John von Neumann, computer architecture description (Von Neumann architecture 1951 - Bob Kahn: 1962 E ARPANET Willard Sterling Boyle George E. Smith charge-coupled device (CCD) (the first successtul imaging bechnology using a digital sensor) 1954 = Jay Forrester: Whirwind (the first real-tme computer) the first large-scale packet-swiching based computer network) 1954 = 19581 Richard Williams: Konrad Zuse: Plankalk (the first higher level programming language) Williams domains" phenomenon discovery 6 J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly: UNIVAC (the first commercially successful olectronic computer) Jack Kilby, Robert John Backus: FORTRAN Erna Schneider Hoover: stored program control (computerized telephone Switching method) Noyce: microchip (high-level programming language) International, Inc 1971 1954 Switzatand CERN 1954 Canada Commodore Businces Machines, inc. 1962 Japan Nippon Talagraph and Talephone 8 1961 USA Teras Instruments 8 1947 Germany Deutsche Bundaspost 3 1946 USA Mobile Telephone Sorvice 194 Japan Sory 1930 USA Hawlutt-Packard Co. University of linois's: PLATO IV (louchacreen terminal 1944 E 1966 E 1959E Howard H. Aiken, DM's MnO2 > 1955 z Michigan State University. University of Michigan, Wayne State University: Merit Network CIA: The Corona photographic surveil- 1965 - 1947 = arvard Mark I computer (he Harvard computer lance satellite (the push to develop an electronic image capturing technology) Wiam B. Shockley John Bardeen and Lewie Urry: alkaline dr battery (zinc/manganese dioxide chemistry) .. E.A. Johnson: first architecture) 1947 E |1960= 1935 finger-driven touchscreen 1943 E Walter Brattain: 1938 USA Unitad Utities, Ing * Wiliam B. Shockley - John Bardeen and + Walter Brattain: invention of J. C. R. Lickiider: the idea of the global computer network 1936 1034 USA Federal Communicatione Commisgion 1930 USA Motorola 1930 USA Geophvsical Seryice Incorporated 1928 USA Galin Marufacturing & 1928 USA Bell Labs R 1925 USA UTSE 1925 USA Federal Radio Commission & 1025 USAThoodore Gary & Co. 8 1924 USA BM 8 1018 USA GTE 8 1912 Finland Tommy Flowers, Colossus (the frst programmable electronic computor) 1949 = Ihagee Kamerawerk: Exakta (the first camera to implement a llash synchronizer) transistor Maurice Wilkes: the first stored program on the EDSAC computer (birthday of modern computing) Marconi Wireless Telegraph company: the liquid crystal light valve patent (the first practical application of the technology) invortion of transistor Paul Baran: packet switched computer networking 1931E at Bell Labs 1947 = 1938 General Electric Company: the Sashalite 4-vot battery ignited photoflash bub Douglas H. Ring and W. Rae Young: the hexagonal cell concept for a cellular Konrad Zuse, Z1 (the fiest mechanical binary programmable computer) 1940 E George Stibitz: 1-bit binary adder using relays 1948 1937 E 1927 IBM. SSEC he first compubes to modily a stored program) Harold Eugene Edgerton: the first electronic flash tube Claude Elwood Shannon: digital computer and digital circuit design theory mobile telephone system 1906 E Vsevolod Frederiks: electrically switched light valve 1931 E- 1929 Johann Ostermeyer: patent on a safety flesh bulb using aluminum wire or foil in oxygen (produced by Lee De Forest: vacuum tube 1904 E+ 1936 E 1899 + N Metallgesolschaft AG, the first commercial production of Ithum metal, GERMANY, 1923 invention (electronic amplitiery IBM 601 Multiplying Punch . Fnnish Cable Works A Hauser Company (Vacublit 1911 USA Unted Tulophone Co Reichspost teleprinter service (telex) Ernst Alexanderson: Kurt Gödel, work on universal formal languages and the limits of proof and computation Alan Turing: the principle of the modern computer | 1933 nickel-cadmium battery e | 1906 1925 M Alexanderson alternator 1D06 USA Xera Co Lid 1903 Gomany Telefurkan 1866 I MnO2 Reginald Fessenden: the first radio transmissions of voice and music (point-to-polint wireless telephony) Matthew A. Hunter, production of pure titanium, USA, 1910 (Rensselaer Polytechnic Insttute) 1924 1903E Paul Vierkötter: electronically John Ambrose Fleming: ignited magnesium ech bulb Automatic Elactric Co. 101 USA Commercia 1932 Georges Leclanc Leclanche cell Fleming valve (diode) Commercial Pacific Cable Company: first trans-paeific telegraph cables Walther Bothe, logic gate 1900 = Gustav Tauschek Pacfic Cabie Company 8 1900 USA Mnconis Wireloss Telograph Co 1859 I D 1904 Eastman Kodak Company: Brownie (the first mass-marketed camera) 1877–1879 I 1898 1919 Gaston Plante, lead-acid battery (the first rechargeabie electric battery) 1900 s 1908 Frand • 1906 Herman Hollerith plugboard 1886 the "Flissige Kristalle article (the name "iquid crystals' coined) .. Arnish Aubbar Works Ld 1898 = Karl Ferdinand Braun: 1887 UKThe Wreloss Tolograph A Signal Co David Edward Hughes. Thomas Edison, Emile Berliner: carbon William Henry Eccles and F.W. Jordan, fip-flop circuit design - Lee De Forest. - vacuum tube invention cat's whisker diode microphone (belephone transmitter) • H:SO zinc-carbon battery the first dry cell battery) Hannibal Williston Goodwin: patent for celluloid photographic film uSA BEWN Taluphone Co. 8 1802 USATha Goneral Electric Co. 8 191 USA Strowga Automatic Telaphone Exchanga Co. 1891 USA Stntord University 8 1n9o USA Edison Ganeral Elactric Co. - 18 USA Tabulng machine 18ne USA Westinghouse Electric 1688 USA Eastman Kodak 1895I• 180 USA 1882= A Cu 1889 = 1888 Guglielmo Marconi: the first complete, commercially successful wireless telegraphy system 1877 E Video Camera Herman Hollerith punched card processing patent (rocording of data on a medium that could then be read by a machine) Thomas Edison: Peart Street Station the first public 1893 Ridge Telephone Company: the first long-distance telephone fine 1894= Friedrich Reinitzer: discovery of liquid crystal properties steam-driven power distribution system) HJ. Rogers: Vulcan Street Plant (the wortd's first Edison hydroelectric central station Friedrich Oto Schott: borosilicate glass (gass with novel optical properties for lens manulacturingl Alexander Popov: the world's first radio receiver Oliver Lodge: demonstration of the radio waves receotion a with a cohorer patent Warded 1876 1884 = A ATRT Com 1880 USA Edson iluminating Co. 2 1677 USA Bell Tolophone Co. 1876 1836 1888 Louis Le Prince: 1890 I. Tivadar Puskás: telephone switchboard exchange 1881 E Dor E. Felt Comptometer (the first commercialy successlul kay-driven mechanical cakulator) Louis Boutan magnesium flash lamp William Grove: fuel cel 1886 I 1870 Swaden Eriosson Alexander Graham Bell: the first patented Elisha Gray patent caveat for the telephon 1875 USA Bel Patent Lucien Gaulard and John film camera patent application for the telephone Edouard Branly: Branly's coherer 1836 E Asnociation Dixon Gibbs: device for the 1872 USA Westan Blactric 8 1671 Finiand Nokia Ab 1870 USA US Wther Buru 8 1009 S. Korea Samsung Group 1874 E transmission of allemating current electrical energy | 1884 John Frederic Daniell: Daniel cell (the first truly practical and le alecic battary) 1888 = 1888 1879 E Alexander Graham Bell: the theoretical concept for the telephone George Eastman: Kodak (the first commercialy successful bax camera for roll fim) Karl Ferdinand Braun: Eadweard Muybridge 2oopraziscope (stop motion images sequence projector) Radio o 1868 Heinrich Hertz: proof the firat waifeg deacriotin 1807 USA Babcock & Wiko Co. + 1600 Trancatiandc tolograph cablo 1805 Switrartand ITU 8 1805 USA Southern Pacitic Ralrcad 16e1 USA Pacifc Telegrph 10EUSA Masaachustts g of Tachnology - 1860 Pacific Telegraph Act and demonstration of the electromagnetic waves existonce of a semiconductor diode 1835 zn Elisha Grav William Armstrong: 1881=. electromagnet device for transmittin musical tones the world's first William Sturgeon: zine amakgamation for a longer de and increased power of a battery power station 1884 I David Henderson Houston: patent for a roll film holder 1862 E 1858 Temistocle 1860 Calzecchi-Onesti: an early form of coherer and the principle of radio wave James Clerk Maxwell: Maxwell's equations the foundation of classical eco Cyrus West Field: the first telograph cable across the Atlantic Ocean 1872 1856 UK/USA/Canada Atlanto Tulugraph Co. Ddynamics sand Johann Philipp Reis: Reis telephone the first make-and-break telephonel, microphone diaphragm tric circuits), prediction of the existonce of radio waves 1837 = Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe: the Abbe sine condition discovery (improved production of lenses) 1851 USA Watam Union ntection |1848 1880 E George Boole: binary algebra (Boolean agebra) Samuel Morse:long distance communication telegraph and Morse code 1850 1847 Gormany Siemens AG 1851 Thomas Edison: thermal olectron amission (Edison effect) John Watkins Brett: submarine telegraphy (the tfirst line across the English Channel) 1871 1854 I Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorft: Ruhmkorff coil 1831-1832 Charles Bourseut description of a | 1842 E Michael Faraday: laws of electrochemistry faw of induction Richard Leach Maddox: lightweight gelatin dry plate (small hand-held cameras) make-and-break telephone transmitter and recelrer 1880 = 1850 I 1842 E 1862 国 Ada Lovelace: the frst computer Antoine Bussy prepared Mal magnesium in coherent form FRANCE, 1831 •William Montgomerie: gutta-percha insulator for telegraph wires David Edward Hughes: 1849 I Edward Sonstadt: the first intentional transmission program magnesium wire for flash of a signal by means of electromagnetic waves a practical AC generator 1827 Antonio Meucci: demonstration of an electromagnetic communicating device Jons Jacob Berzellus obtains pure Silicon. SWEDEN, 1824 1832 Geora Ohm Ohm's law (the concept of electrical resistance) Désiré van Monekhoven: the dry collodion process Si 1836 1837 1855 Semen Korsakov: the first Hans Christian Orstod William Fothergill Cooke and Charles Wheatstone: first commercial electrical telegraph was the first to isolate Al metalic aluminium usage of punch cards for information storage 1851 • Nicholas Callan: induction 1844 I Electricity coil (transformer) 1821 I DENMARK, 1825 Frederick Scott Archer: the wet plate collodion process (shorter axposure time) M4 LIK Univsity of Manchester Innocenzo Manzetti: 1832 André-Marie Ampère: theory of electrodynamics the idea of an electric "speaking telegraph Wiliam Thomas Brande, the first isolation of lithium, UK. 1821 Hippolyte Pixil: prototype DC generator (an early form of dynamo) 1822 1841 I. 1841 E Li Johan August Artwedson, thium discovery, SWEDEN, 1817 Charles Babbage: design fest prototype of of the fas e decimal diference 1802 E Joseph Plateau: phenakistoscope (the first demonstration of the ilusion of a moving image) Henry Fox Talbot: the Calotype process (the first negativelpositive photographic process) Li engine 1839 I• William Cruickshank trough battery dirst oloctric battery capable of mass production) 1833 Humphry Davy tried to Magnesium was first produced by Sir Humphry Davy UK. 1808 Friedrich Stromeyer, Karl Samuel Leberacht Hermarn discovery of cadmium, GERMANY, 1817 Louis Daguerre: daguerreotype (the first practical process of photography) Ma decompose aluminium Al Athough he tailed, he suggested the present name Cd Carl Friedricn Gauss and Wilhelm Weber: 1804 first electromagnetic telegraph used for regular communication 1822 I ENGLAND, 1808 Jose Bonitacio de Andrada e 1800 Li Silva: discovery of petaite (a E mineral containing ithium) BRASIL Francisco Salva Campillo electrochemieal Joseph Nicephore Niépce: first successful photographic image with camera obscura 1832 END OF THE 18TH CENTURY Pavel Schilling: proneering contribution to practical telegraphy (binary system of signal transmissions William Gregor, tihanium dscovery 1820I Thomas de Colmar Arithmometer (the first commercially uccessful mechanical calculator) Ti UK, 1791 Carbon isted by Antoine Lavoisier as an element 1800 1820 Antoine Lavoisier predicted AL that alumine is the oxide of an undiscovered element FRANCE, 1789 1786 Alessandro Volta: invention of the voltaic pile (zinc, copper disks) Hans Christian Ørsted: electromagnetism diecovery FRANCE, 1787 J. H. MOllert: the idea of a dierence 1780 I engine 1820 Luigi Galvani, "animal electricity" (a bridge between chemical reactions and elactricity) 1816 Johann Schweigger first galvanometer Francis Ronalds: first working electrostatic telegraph 1762 + 1792 I Leonhard Euler: works in optics (disphragms on tolescopes) 1752= Claude Succeashul rst Benjamin Franklin: discovery of electrical potentials telecommunications system (semaphore network) Axel Fredrik Cronstedt. Ni discovery and trat isolation of nickel. 1749 = SWEDEN 1 Benjamin Franklin: the term "battery" used to describe a set of linked capacitors Andreas Sigismund Marggrat, zinc isolation Zn GERMANY, 1746 1745 1746 Joseph Marie Jacquard: the first workable programmable loom punched cards ted together to form a long loop) Pieter van Musschenbroek: H2SO4 Y of cobalt Col DEN 15 jar Joshua Ward, the first large-scale production of sulfuric acid 1728 I• Jean-Baptiste Falcon: Falcon Loom (programmable loom using a deck of durable punched cards) 1725 I T 1720 Stephen Gray: discovery of insulators and conductors Basile Bouchon: the fest attemt to use punched pape atored program for a loom (continuous punched roll 1700 1684 1679 Robert Hooke: proposals for an optical telegraph system to Royal Society Gottfried Leibniz: the modern binary number system 1671 1667 Gottfried Leibniz, Stepped Reckoner (multiplying machine) 1000 UK Royal Sociaty Robert Hooke acoustic string telephone 1662 器 。 Robert Hooke: iris diaphragm 1650 Otto von Guericke electrostatic generator H2SO4 1642 I (Sulturic acid) Blaise Pascal: Pascaline Johann Glauber, synthesiring of sulfuric acid by buming sultur together with potassium nitrate GERMANY / NETHERLANDSs (1625-1648) (mechanical cakulator) +1624 taly Wanatian Statute + 1620 Plymouth Colony 1614 E John Napier: logarithm reinvention and Napier's 1611 bones 1808 UK Virginia Company Johannes Kepler: the compound-lens system description 1600 1600 E 1608 Wiliam Gilbert establishment of electrochemistry and electrical engineering. the term "electricity Hans Lippershey: the earliest known working te telescope 1588 + Jost Bürgi: natural logarithms 1568 I: Daniele Barbaro: a book on perspective for artists and architects (usage of a lens with a camera obscura) 1500 - 1402 Columbun' firat voyage to the Now World 1474 taly Vanotian Stalule + 1436 Germery Gutanberg's prining pro Company of Merchant Adventurors of London 1400 1300 1300 Ramon Llui: Lutian Circle (a notional machine for calculating answers to phiosophical questions via logical combinatorics) 1268 I: The invention of spectacles (the start of the optical industry of grinding and polishing lonses) 1200 UK University of Cambridge 1206 C 1200 Al-Jazari: astronomical clock (the earliest programmable anaiog comp 1100 E 996 Abu Rayhan AI-Biruni: the first ORamd machanical astrolabe 1000 1000 Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham): the use of a conver lens on a pinhole camera (Camera Obscura) 900 Awciens Caracteres trithmityars 820 Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi: spreading the Indian system of numeration throughout the and Europe, the word "algorithm" eMididle Fest East 800 H2SO4 (Sulfuric acid) Jabir bn Hayyan, discovery of sulluric aold IRAN, (750-815) 724 Liang Lingzan: the world's first fully mechanical clock (luture computers would be based on the technology) 700 600 600 Brahmagupta: description of the modern place-value numeral system, first rules to compute with zero LEGEND : Australia Event impacting multiple industries (identified by colors) Italy Austria Japan Invention, event or achievement on timeline Belgium O Koroa, South Outstanding achievement Canada Morocco 500 ------ Connection between * China Netherlands Important historical milestone E Denmark Russia Related businesses (identified by color) Egypt South Africa Idea strongly influenced by others I Finland Spain The frst computer bug France The term "bug was used in an account by computer pioneer Grace Hopper, who publicized the cause of a matunction in an earty electromechanical computer.[6] A typical version of the story is given by this quote: In 1946, when Hopper was roloased from active duty, she joined the Harvard Faculty at the Computation Germany + Switzerland C. Turkey Laboratory whem the continued her work on the Mark Il and Mark III. Operatom n error in the Mark Il to a moth trapped in a elay, coining the term bug. This - Hungary E UK bug was carefully removed and taped to the log book. Stemming from the first bug, today we call enors or gillches in a program a bug Uzbekistan Ireland QuartSoft Corp. Your web and graphic design partner http:/ http:/ Template:Timoline_of_IPhone_models hetpclen.wikipedia.orgfwikiTimeline of chemical olement discoveries of computing hardware 2400 BC%E2N80031040 Timoline_of olecrical and oloctronic_onginooring http:/ development http:llevertig.cominews34667 OS http:/ htp:/ hrtp:/ hrp:lelectronics hnp:lelectronics htp:/ http:/ display hrp:/'Elsha_Gray_and_Alexander_Bel telephone_controversy hrap:/ hrtp:/ hrsp:/ of_moble_phones hep:/ hrp:/ radio hrtp:/ of IEEE milestones htsp:/ batteryHistory hetp:hamu o Timeline the_first cell phone_invented http:/ hep:l/ hepwww. h http://www.ieeeghnorgiwikindex.php/Category:Computing_and electronics http:l/ http:/ http:/ http:/ _amelines .comimobilecamere-phone-history a ca. 150 – ca. 168 E Claudius of A refiection 1ST CENTURY I Heron of Alexandria "Seguence Control Lucius Annaeus Seneca: the eartiest written record of magnification 4CE (the first program) 125 BCE E Antikythera mechanism (a clockwork considered to be the first analog computer) 300 BCE 300 BCE Pingala: first description of the binary number system Euclid: Euclid's Optica (work on the geometry of 500 BCE Panini: the idea of describing the structure of language using rewniting rules (the world's first formal Using a zero in calculations 600 BCE E Thales of Miletus diecovery of static electricity ca. 750 BCE – ca. 710 BCE D The Nimrud lens the oldest lens in the world ca. 2400 BOCE – 1000 The discovery of copper dates from prohistoric timos. There are reports of Cu copper beads dating back to 9000BC found in IRAQ. Methods for refining copper from its ores were discovered around 5000BC and a 1000 or so yeara lator it was being used in pottery in NORTH AFRICA Metalic lead beads daling back to 6400 BCE have Pb been found in Çatalhoy in modern-day Turkey 3750 BCE H2SO4 Abacus C The earliest known use of charcoal was for the reduction of copper, zinc, (Sulfuric acid) Hasan al-Rammah, the earliest known complete purilfication process for potassium nitrate that will be used for and tin ores in the manufacture of bronze, by the Egyptians and Sumerians -10000 future syntheeizing of sulturic aoid 1220 SYRIA, 12 -20000 MnO2 (Manganese dioxide) ioides of manganese, tor manganese doxide, are abundant in nature and owing to their color, these oxides have been used as pigments since the Stone Age. The cave paintings in Gargas contain manganese as pigments and these cave paintings are 30,000 to 24,000 years old. ca.35000 BCE Tally stick -0000

History of Technologies That Made iPhone Possible

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Technologies used in an iPhone have a longer history than many of us are aware of. Our infographic shows how the human engineering and innovation though had been evolving from the Stone Age to the iPh...


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