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Dr. Robot: The Future of Medical Surgery

DR.ROBOT SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS SHARED-CONTROL SYSTEM This basic system requires substantial surgeon involvement. Typically, the surgeon carries out the majority of the opera- tion, while the robot provides steady-hand assistance when needed. A TELESURGICAL SYSTEM The telesurgical system requires the surgeon to manipulate the robotic arms during surgery as if it were his own, instead of the robots working on their own accord from a set pro- gram. This allows the surgeon to operate from a remote location by utilizing sensor data provided by the robot. SUPERVISORY-CONTROLLED SYSTEM With this system, the surgical procedures are conducted solely by the robot, following a computer program the sur- geon inputs prior to the surgery. The surgeon, however, is still a necessary part of the procedure as he ultimately plans and oversees the procedure, but has no direct contact. Micro machines are miniature robots capable of carrying out medical procedures. They are self-powered and small enough to be placed inside the patient's body. University of Ilinois department of surgery professor Pier Cristoforo Giulianotti, sees the extreme miniaturization of augmented reality, where computer-generated images will NEUROLOGY The image guidance systems of a new neurological robot is unbelievably sophisticated. Not only can the surgeon simulate the procedure beforehand in virtual reality, but the micro-surgical tools and real-time MRIS augment the surgeons accuracy 1,000 times over from 1 millimeter to one-thousandth of a millimeter. THE FUTURE OF MEDICAL SURGERY -CNN Today, in operating rooms around the be overlaid onto real-world images. -CNN world you will typically find two or three surgeons, an anesthesiologist and a few nurses. However, the more complex surgeries often require up to a dozen people to be present in the room, With medical costs soaring, sur- gical robots are becoming a desired option. In the future, surgery may require just one surgeon, an anesthe- siologist, a couple nurses and yes, a robot. CARDIOLOGY Robotics' gradual entry into the field of cardiology has been a slow one and can be dissected into four levels: Direct Vision and Mini-Incisions, Video-Assisted and Micro-Incisions, Video-Directed and Port Incisions, and Video Directed and Robotic Instruments. As each level has been implemented the complexity and involvement of the robots has increased dramatically. ADVANTAGES 1. Surgeon Console 2. Image Processing Equipment 3. Endowrist Instruments 4. Surgical Arm Cart 5. Hi-Resolution 3-D Endoscope > Geometric accuracy > Stable > Sterilization > Precision > Miniaturization > Smaller incisions > Less blood loss > Less pain > Faster recovery 3-D magnification > Improved ergonomics > Superior result 2 RADIOSURGERY Scientists foray into the use of robots in radiosurgery has brought us a robotic radiosurgery system that utilizes image-guidance and computer controlled robotics to treat tumors by accurately delivering high- energy radiation beams to the tumors from almost any direction. 5 DISADVANTAGES > Difficult to debug > Expensive UROLOGY Because of the long term economic pluses, better accuracy and improved quality of the surgical robots, the health care sector has continued to encourage the presence of robots in urological surgery since the late 1980s. The surgical robotic systems can cost well over $1 million and are extremely expensive to ORTHOPEDICS The use of surgical robots is now widely accepted in the orthopedic community. Robots are especially effec- tive in this field as computers can now map and navi- gate bones easier than soft tissue because of their maintain. By using the robots, hospitals may be able to to decrease their costs, but in some situa- In 1985, the first sugical procedure assisted by a robot was documented. SOURCES density and rigidity, allowing for bone operations to be tions, the savings may not be enough to justify accurate and efficient, The robotic arm was used in a rather delicate non-laproscopic neurosurgi- cal biopsy. the expense of the system. HISTORY 1998 Using a surgical robot, Dr. Friedrich-Wilhelm Mohr suc- cessfully performs a heart bypass at the Leipzig Heart Centre in Germany. 1997 1985 The first surgical robot breaks onto the scene. 1988 Another surgical robot is developed in London to per- form prostatic surgeries. 1999 The first robotically assisted heart bypass on U.S. soil is 2001 Dr. Michael Gagner remotely performs a cholecystectomy from New York on a female patient in France. 2008 The first robotic pediatric neu- rogenic bladder reconstruction 2009 The results of the largest multi- institutional study on the use of a robotic surgical system was reported by Dr. Todd Tilmanns. 2009 The very first kidney transplant assisted only by surgical robots was performed by Dr. Stuart Geffner in New Jersey. 1992 1999 In Canada, Dr. Douglas Boyd and Dr. Reiza Rayman use a surgical robot to perform the first beating heart coronary bypass graft. 2006 The first purely robotic surgery is performed on a 34 year old male to correct a heart arrhythmia and is rated as better than an above-average human surgery. A new type of robot is intro- duced and is first used in hip A robot is successful in a reconnection of fallopian tubes procedure in Cleveland, U.S.A. surgery was conducted on a 10 year old girl by Dr. Mohan S. replacement surgery. performed at Ohio State Uni- versity by Dr. Randall Wolf and Dr. Robert Michler. Gundeti in Chicago.

Dr. Robot: The Future of Medical Surgery

shared by Rasmussen_College on Nov 13
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With medical costs soaring, surgical robots are becoming a desirable option. In the future, surgery may require just one surgeon instead of three, assisted by an anesthesiologist, a nurse and a robot.


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