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A Closer Look at the Most Common Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports

WHY ATHLETES USE PEDS A Closer Look at the Most Common Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports STEROIDS AND ANABOLIC AGENTS MLB SUSPENSIONS BY SUBSTANCE 2885-2815 16 Of the 24 MLB suspensions since 2005 in which the substances involved were disclosed, steroids, testosterone and other anabolic agents were used in 15 of the cases. 14 12 ANABOLICS (ALL] 18 "I don't recommend steroids for everyone, and I don't recommend growth hormones for everyone. But for certain individuals, I truly believe, because l've experimented with it for so many years, that it can make an average athlete a super athlete. It can make a super athlete - incredible. Just legendary." - Jose Canseco ΑMPHETHMIΝE & STIMULANTS 4 PEPTIDES/ HORMONES ANTI-ESTROGEN While steroids use is not particularly pronounced in any position group in baseball, in football, linemen comprise almost sixty percent of steroid suspensions. WHY STEROIDS? Steroids make athletes bigger, stronger and more aggressive. They help the body's muscle cells produce more protein, leading to increased muscle size and strength gains following resistance training, as well as faster recovery. MEDICAL APPLICATION SIDE EFFECTS Used to treat low testosterone Because studying the effects of large doses of steroids is unethical, there's limited research on the side-effects, especially long-term. Observed side effects include infertility and impotence in men, acne, heart problems and psychiatric disorders. levels, delayed puberty, and muscle loss from some diseases. NFL GAMES MISSED BY SUSPENSIONS 2005-2015 GAMES MISSED ス OFFENSIVE LINE 16- 12- DEFENSIVE ВАСК 4 FULLBACK/ RUNNING BACK DEFENSIVE LINE LINEBACKER TESTING MASKING A variety of drugs can mask steroid use, however diuretics are the class of masking drug most commonly detected in the NFL. Diuretics increase urination, which can mask Injected steroids remain in the body for 3-4 months on average. Urine can be tested for steroids and other anabolic agents by comparing the ratio of testosterone to epitesterone. In the average male, the ratio of these two hormones is 1:1. Using anabolic agents causes the ratio of testosterone to increase, with a 4:1 ratio set as the limit by WADA. the presence of other drug markers in urine. Diuretics have their own side-effects, including dehydration, hypotension, seizures and gout. OTHER NOTABLE ANABOLIC AGENTS Clenbuterol: Stanozolol: First used as an asthma medication, 'clen' is used to build lean muscle by enhancing muscle protein synthesis. Side effects may include cardiac hypetrophy – enlargement of heart ventricles. Typically used in conjunction with other anabolic steroids during the 'cutting phase' of a суcle. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE (HGH) Testing was introduced to the NFL in October 2014, and in-season testing began in the MLB in 2013. It will be introduced in the NBA in the 2015-16 season. WHY HGH? Growth hormone is naturally produced by the pituitary gland. Natural production peaks during teenage years and slowly declines with age. Taken in isolated form, HGH boosts speed and strength in the short term. Over the long term, HGH has been shown to help add lean body mass and aid recovery, helping repair bone and cartilage. MEDICAL APPLICATION SIDE EFFECTS Used to treat children and adults Muscle and joint pain, increased risk of with growth hormone deficiencies, and for people undergoing organ transplants. carpal tunnel syndrome, high blood pressure, increased risk of painful swelling and body aches due to fluid retention. TESTING MASKING A 2010 study showed that athletes ling between 22,000-dalton hormone, and HGH only remains in the body for a few days after use, and syr almost the same. Blood 'isoform' testing is required to detect signs of HGH use. Growth hormone naturally occurs in two forms, with different molecular weights - 22,000 and 20,000-daltons. Synthetic HGH tends to come in only 22,000-dalton form, so tests measures for an unusually high ratio of 22,000-dalton hormone as an indicator. HGH and naturally occurring HGH look could beat isoform by a rarer (and less effective) 20,000-dalton hormone. ADDERALL AND OTHER AMPHETAMINES NFL PLAYERS SUSPENDED BY POSITION FOR ADDERALL USE Of all amphetamines and stimulants used in the NFL, Adderall is the most historically abused. Defensive backs represent the majority of Adderall suspensions. "It gives you an upper hand that regular guys like myself don't have. It helps you focus more attention to what's going on, on the field and that is an advantage because regular people like myself ... don't have it. But it is an advantage." - Pierre Garçon, NFL Wide Receiver 6 4 TIGHT END/ WIDE RECEIVER DEFENSIVE LINE LINEBACKER OFFENSIVE LINE DEFENSIVE ВАСK WHY AMPHETAMINES? Amphetamines are an "upper", stimulating the central nervous system and releasing neurotransmitters like dopamine. Studies have shown that Adderall and other amphetamines can help to improve hand-eye coordination, acceleration, focus and concentration. NH2 MEDICAL APPLICATION SIDE EFFECTS Gastrointestinal upset, decreased appetite, rashes, increased heart rate and Prescribed for ADHD and related conditions to help patients focus, remain calm, and improve concentration. Certain amphetamines, like Adderall and Ritalin, are permitted by the major leagues if prescribed to treat these conditions. blood pressure. In the long term, can cause enlarged heart and psychosis. TESTING The effects of amphetamines appear within around 30 minutes of ingestion, and peak after around two to three hours. They are most likely to be detected when drug testing is performed during competition; they can be detected from two to four days after use by GC/MS technology. MARIJUANA SUSPENSIONS IN THE NFL 2005-2015 Marijuana has been responsible for more drug suspensions than any other PED in the NFL. In 2014, the NFL reduced penalties for marijuana use. REPORTED POSITIVE DRUG TESTS AVERAGE LENGTH OF SUSPENSION 23 MARIJUANA 5.17 STIMULANTS & AMPHETAMINES 18 4.86 14 STEROIDS 4 DIURETICS 2.57 HGH 5 "Pain is a big problem in the NFL. Pain management is necessary. Weed is the least harmful and least addictive of the painkillers players use to cope with the violent demands of the game." - Antonio Cromartie "I know guys on my team who smoke...A lot of it is stress relief. A lot of it is pain and medication. Guys feel like, 'If I can do this, it keeps me away from maybe Vicodin, it keeps me away from pain prescription drugs and things that guys get addicted to.' Guys look at this as a more natural way to heal themselves, to stress relieve and also to medicate themselves for pain." - Ryan Clark WHY MARIJUANA? Cannabinoids - the chemical compounds in marijuana - bind with receptors in the brain and body that regulate pain. One study from the University of Bordeaux in France found that THC can cause the brain to produce pregnenolone, a precursor to natural steroid production. MEDICAL APPLICATION SIDE EFFECTS Medical marijuana is used in treatment of pain, nausea, stress and anxiety, amongst Has been shown to increase the heart rate by as much as two times for up to 3 hours, increasing the risk of heart attack. Can increase bleeding and lower blood pressure. Other side effects are dizziness, shallow breathing, red eyes and dilated pupils, dry mouth, increased appetite, slowed reaction times. other conditions. ESTIMATED DETECTION PERIOD (DAYS) TESTING Urinalysis is used by all major leagues to screen for marijuana. Detection period varies by individual metabolism rate and how often Occasional 4 users Frequent the drug is used. users Extreme |67 Case Northwestern | Professional Studies Sources: http://www.momsteam.com/team-of-experts/steven-horwitz-dc/performance-enhancing-drugs/what-are-anabolic-steroids-and-how-do- http://www.sportsci.org/encyc/anabster/anabster.html http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/anabolicsteroids.html http://www.nfl.com/news/story/0ap1000000159187/article/pierre-garcon-adderall-gives-players-an-upper-hand http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/steroids.html#HTOWU4GDuxXV4B3k.99 http://sportsmedicine.about.com/od/performanceenhancingdrugs/a/What-Is-Clenbuterol.htm http://www.wisegeekhealth.com/what-is-stanozolol.htm http://espn.go.com/special/s/drugsandsports/amphet.html http://www.webmd.com/diet/the-truth-about-hgh-for-weight-loss http://www.jsonline.com/sports/many- http:/ s-use-hgh-for-recovery-purposes-fk9hbga-205497691.html fid/10413409/ryan-clark-pittsburgh-steelers-discusses-marijuana-use athletes-use- .com/nfl/story/ ://espn.go. http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/explainer/2006/06/why_is_hgh_so_hard_to_detect.html http://www.vpxsports. http://www.leafscience.com/2014/04/22/how-long-thc-stay-system/ https://www.flickr.com/photos/keithallison/15448068363/ https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ryan_clark_2014.jpg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Cromartie http://www.hardballtimes.com/how-does-steroid-testing-actually-work/ http://www.livestrong.com/article/491627-consequences-of-diuretics-in-sports/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jose_Canseco .com/article-detail/drugs/ghrp2- 2-masks-human-growth-hormone-use

A Closer Look at the Most Common Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports

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Simply put, many of the drugs athletes take illegally are designed to increase their athletic performance. Northwestern SPS has put together a visual guide that covers the effects of drugs on athleti...

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