The Solar System

THE SOLAR SYSTEM Br CHAYANIKA SOOD The Solar System 'was formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago and consists of the Sun, planets, dwarf planets and other astronomical objects bound in its orbit. The formation was 'cause by the collapsé of a giant molecular cloud, the mass at the centre collecting to form the Sun and a flat disk of dust around it which the planets and other bodies would eventually be formed from: 99.86% of the system's mass is found in the Sun and the majority of the remaining 0.14% is contained within the solar system's eight planets. The four smaller inner planets, also known as the "terrestrial planets" (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars), are primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets, also known as the "gás giants" (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune), are substantially larger and more massive than the inner planets. The two innermost gas giants, Jupiter and Saturn,'are the larger of the four and'are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. The'two outermost gas giảnts, Uranus ánd Neptune, are composed largely of içes, (water, ammonia and methane) and are sometimes also referred to as the "ice giants“. Other objects of note in the Solar System are the dwarf planets (Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake & Eris), SUN For millennia, astronomers have followed points of light that seemed to move among the stars. The ancient Greeks named these planets, meaning wanderers. Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were known in antiquity, and the invention of the telescope added the asteroid belt, Uranus and Neptune, Pluto and many of these worlds' moons. The dawn of the space age saw dozens of probes launched to explore our system, an adventure that continues today. The discovery of Eris kicked off a rash of new discoveries of dwarf planets, and more than 100 could remain to be Age: 4.6 Billion Years Type: Yellow Dwarf (G2V) Diameter: 1,392,684 km Circumference at Equator: 4,370,005.6 km Mass: 1,989,100,000,000,000,000,000 billion kg (333,060 x Earth) Surface Tempercature: 5500 °C The sun is far the largest object in our solar system, containing 99.8 percent of the solar system's mass. It sheds most of the heat and light that makes life possible on Earth and possibly elsewhere. Planets orbit the sun in oval-shaped paths called ellipses, and the sun is slightly off to the side of the center of each ellipse. found. moons, asteroids, the àsteroid belt, comets and the Kuiper belt. INNER SOLAR SYSTEM MERCURY Mass: 330,104,000,000,000 billion kg (0.055 x Earth) Equatorial Diameter: 4,879 Polar Diameter: 4,879 VENHIS Equatorial Circumference: 15,329 km Orbit Distance: 57,909,227 km (0.39 AU) Orbit Period: 87.97 Earth days Inner Planets Mass: 4,867,320,000,000,0oo billion kg (O.815 x Earth) Surface Temperature: -173 to 427°C The inner four planets-Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars-are made up mostly of iron and rock. They are known as terrestrial or earthlike planets because of their similar size and composition. Equatorial Diameter: 12,104 km Polar Diameter: 12,104 km Equatorial Circumference: 38,025 km Orbit Distance: 108,209,475 km (0.73 AU) Orbit Period: 224.70 Earth days Surface Temperature: 462 °C EARTH Mass: 5,972,190,000,000,00o billion kg Equatorial Diameter: 12,756 km Polar Diameter: 12,714 km Equatorial Circumference: 40,030 km Known Satellites: 1 Notable Satellites: The Moon Orbit Distance: 149,598,262 km (1 AU) Orbit Period: 365.26 Earth days Surface Temperature: -88 to 58°C MARS Asteroid belt Mass: 641,693,000,000,000 billion kg (0.107 x Earth) Equatorial Diameter: 6,805 Polar Diameter: 6,755 Asteroids are minor planets, most of which circle the sun in a region known as the asteroid belt, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Scientists estimate that there are more than 750,000 asteroids in the belt with diameters larger than three-fifths of a mile (1 kilometer), and there are millions of smaller asteroids. A number have orbits that take them closer into the solar system that sometimes lead them to collide with Earth or the other inner planets. Equatorial Circumference: 21,297 km Known Satellites: 2 Notable Satellites: Phobos & Deimos Orbit Distance: 227,943,824 km (1.38 AU) Orbit Period: 686.98 Earth days (1.88 Earth years) Surface Temperature: -87 to -5 °C ASTEROIDS JUPITER OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM Mass: 1,898,130,000,000,000,000 billion kg (317.83 x Earth) Equatorial Diameter: 142,984 km Polar Diameter: 133,709 km Equatorial Circumference: 439,264 km Known Satellites: 67 Notable Satellites: lo, Europa, Ganymede, & Callisto Orbit Distance: 778,340,821 km (5.20 AU) Orbit Period: 4,332.82 Earth days (11.86 Earth years) Surface Temperature: -108°C Outer Planets The outer planets are giant worlds with thick outer layers of gas. Nearly all their mass is made up of hydrogen and helium, giving them compositions like that of the sun. Beneath these outer layers, they have no solid surfaces – the pressure from their thick atmospheres liquefy their insides, although they might have rocky cores. Rings of dust, rock, and ice encircle all these giants, with Saturn's being the most famous. SATURN Mass: 568,319,00o0,000,000,000 billion kg (95.16 x Earth) Equatorial Diameter: 120,536 km Polar Diameter: 108,728 km Equatorial Circumference: 365,882 km Known Satellites: 62 Notable Satellites: Titan, Rhea & Enceladus Orbit Distance: 1,426,666,422 km (9.58 AU) Orbit Period: 10,755.70 Earth days (29.45 Earth years) Surface Temperature: -139 °C URANUS Mass: 86,810,300,000,000,000 billion kg (14.536 x Earth) Equatorial Diameter: 51,118 km Polar Diameter: 49,946 km Equatorial Circumference: 159,354 km Known Satellites: 27 Notable Satellites: Oberon, Titania, Miranda, Ariel & Um- briel Orbit Distance: 2,870,658,186 km (19.22 AU) Orbit Period: 30,687.15 Earth days (84.02 Earth years) Surface Temperature: -197 °C Comets NEPTUNE Comets are often known as dirty snowballs, and consist mainly of ice and rock. When a comet's orbit takes it close to the sun, some of the ice in its central nucleus turns into gas that shoots out of the comet's sunlit side, Mass: 102,410,000,000,000,000 billion kg (17.15x Earth) Equatorial Diameter: 49,528 km Polar Diameter: 48,682 km Equatorial Circumference: 155,600 km Known Satellites: 14 Notable Satellites: Tritan which the solar wind carries outward to form into a Orbit Distance: 4,498,396,441 km (30.10 AU) Orbit Period: 60,190.03 Earth days (164.79 Earth years) Surface Temperature: -201 °C long tail. Short-period comets that complete their orbits in less than 200 years are thought to originate from the the disk-shaped Kuiper belt, while long- period comets that take more than 200 years to return are thought to come from the spherical Oort cloud. PLUTO Mass: 13,050,000,000,000 billion kg (0.00218 x Earth) Diameter: 2,306 km Known Satellites: 5 Notable Satellites: Charon, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos and Styx Orbit Distance: 5,874,000,000 km (39.26 AU) Orbit Period: 246.04 Earth years Surface Temperature: -229°C

The Solar System

shared by Chayanika on Jun 09
Infographic on the solar system.


Chayanika Sood


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