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Printing the Human Body: How it Works and Where it's Headed

םRIOTIDמ THE HUMAN BODY (How It WorkS and Where It's Headed The rise of 3D printing has introduced one of the most ground-breaking technological feats happening right now. The most exciting part, though, doesn't have anything to do with printing cars and fancy furniture, but in producing human tissue, otherwise known as bioprinting. While it's still early days, the future of bioprinting looks bright and will eventually result in some major advantages for society, whilst also saving billions for the economy that is spent on research and development. ш Evolution of Tissue Engineering and Bioprinting Welcome Let's begin: HOW IT WORKS 1984 Charles Hull invented stereolithography, which enabled a tangible 3D object to be created from digital data. The technology was used to create a 3D model from a Main Components: picture and enabled testing the design before investing in a larger manufacturing program. Cells Hydrogel + NovoGen MMX bioprinter Dr. Gabor Forgacs (ONVO founder) and colleagues made the observation that cells stick together during embryonic development and move together in clumps with liquid-like properties. manufacturing 1996 Creating the BioInk 3 Collected (1 Cells When enough cells are produced, they are collected to program. Sourced from make BioInk. The first human patients 2000 underwent urinary bladder augmentation using a synthetic scaffold seeded with the patients' own cells (engineered, not printed). patient biopsies or stem cells, and grown using standard methods Circa CELLS ARE THEN • formed into spheroids or other shapes and techniques. • loaded into a cartridge to create the BioInk Thomas Boland's lab at Clemson modified an inkjet printer to accommodate and dispense cells in scaffolds. 2003 2 Cultured Cells are cultured in a growth medium, enabling cells to multiply and grow. Dr. Forgacs developed new technology to engineer 3D tissue with only cells, no scaffolds. 2004 2009 Organovo creates the NovoGen MMX Bioprinter using Forgacs technology. Printing Process NovoGen MMX bioprinter is used to: print a layer of hydrogel (an inert water based gel), which functions as a NovoGen MMX bioprinter Organovo prints the -2010 first human blood vessel without the use of 2009 scaffolds. space holder for the printed tissue Hydrogel BioInk Organovo develops multiple drug discovery platforms, 3D bioprinted 2011 deposit bioink spheroids into the layer of hydrogel disease models made from human cells. Hydrogel/spheroid print process is repeated Today small-scale tissues for drug discovery and toxicity testing As layers are built upon, the spheroids naturally fuse together Tomorrow simple tissues for implant, (e.g. cardiac patches or segments of tubes, like blood vessels) Future Maturation Printed tissue is left in the growth medium for several weeks to grow and mature. During which time, the hydrogel is removed. Use Printed tissues can then be used in medical lobes or pieces of organs* *For example, a patient who needs a liver transplant has lost about 80-90 % of their liver function, so a full liver is not research to discover and test new drugs and investigate causes of human diseases. And, in the future, as therapies. needed to make a therapeutic impact. Very Future full organs What Has Been Achieved So Far Nerve guides - 2009 Blood vessel - 2010 Cardiac sheet or patch - 2011 Lung tissue - 2012 PRINTING A LIVER The eventual, longterm goals for bioprinting are to produce full organs. Using today's technology, an average sized liver (1,200cc) and liver lobe Process Speeds Average Liver 1,200 cc Present Day (120cc) would take 10 days to print. As technology improves the speed at which human tissue and, eventually, full organs can be printed will vastly improve. It would take 1,690,912,929,600 hours to print a liver for every 10 03 10x Faster 100x Faster DAYS DAY HOURS member of the human race using today's processes. ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION BY THE NUMBERS Every year, the number of people on the waiting list for an organ transplant increases, yet the amount of donors and available More than 114,300 (waiting list candidates) Approved for: Liver transplant More than 73,000 (active waiting list candidates) 17,000 adults and children have been medically approved for liver transplants and are waiting for donated livers to organs remains at a low. 1 Month (Between January - February 2012) become available. 4,494 transplants took place 2,218 available donors In 2005, 1,848 patients died waiting for a donated liver to become available. DRUG INDUSTRY PROBLEM RESOURCES Each year, the industry spends more than $50billion on research and development, and approximately 20 new drugs are approved by the FDA. Thanks to Organovo for their extensive help and research. organovO $50 BILLION = 20 NEW DRUGS http://www.organovo.com http://www.unos.org http://www.liverfoundation.org A new drug, on average, costs $1.2billion Advance to human testing http://www.wired.com http://www.explainingthefuture.com out of is approved and takes 5,000 new drugs it has a 12 years to develop 1 in 5,000 chance to make it to the market 3D bioprinting technology has the potential to significantly impact the speed, predictiability and consequently the cost of successful drug discovery. printerinks.com

Printing the Human Body: How it Works and Where it's Headed

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3D printing is arguably one of the most groundbreaking technological feats happening right now. However, the most exciting part doesn’t have anything to do with printing cars and fancy furniture, bu...

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