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Possible Endurance Running Adaptations in Human

possible endurance running adaptations in human arguments for the endurance running hypothesis species: Homo sapiens & archaic Homo proposed natural habitat: forest-grassland mosaic stabilization (head) - human performs well at endurance running compared to other primates O tightly coiled hair impedes UV radiation O enlarged semicircular canals (posterior & anterior) increase the improved vestibulo- ocular reflexes adjust expanded venous circulation in the braincase cools eye movements to - enables persistent hunting & strategic scavenging O0 stabilize images e stabilization (body) the head via sense of balance O countercurrent scalp hair blocks sunlight O heat exchange O of running speeds as upright body decoupled respiration from running gait O® wider range short snout & neck ligament stabilizes loosen, low, wide the head O shoulders with shorter arms tall, narrow body form helps cool down the body O decoupled head help swinging of upper body to counter leg reduce effort in arm- swinging O movements 0 thermoregulation eccrine sweating with reduced body dark skin pigment blocks sunlight in tropical open grasslands O larger back & buttock muscles, stabilized spine- hip joint stabilize respiration hair dissipates heat via evaporation 0 tall, narrow waist allow greater counter rotation of the more mouth trunk O the trunk O breathing allows more efficient ventilation O expanded joint surfaces in lower body (spine, hip, legs) reduce stress in the skeleton 0 shorter femoral necks reduce bending stress larger thyroid & adrenal glands allow more longer legs & lighter feet increase stride length with low stride rate, larger heel efficient utilization of reduce energetic cost O bones absorb energy stores shock O (carbohydrates, fats) O skeletal strength inward, projected big toe & shorter toes decrease compacted mid- tendons & ligaments in legs act as springs well- foot arches act as mechanical energetics foot restrict the developed Achilles springs to store elastic energy & work O rotation of feet O to store & release elastic energy tendon O absorb shock O References: 0 Bramble DM, Lieberman DE (2004) Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature 432 (7015): 345–352 e Lieberman DE, Bramble DM, Raichlen DA, Shea JJ (2009) Brains, Brawn, and the Evolution of Human Endurance Running Capabilities. In Grine FE et al. (eds.) The First Humans: Origin and Early Evolution of the Genus Homo: 77–92. Springer e Carrier DR et al. (1984) The Energetic Paradox of Human Running and Hominid Evolution. Current Anthropology 25 (4): 483–495 O Jablonski NG (2006) Skin: a natural history. University of California Press

Possible Endurance Running Adaptations in Human

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The Endurance Running hypothesis is the latest incarnation of the open-plain models of human evolution, which speculated that human is anatomically and physiologically adapted to endurance running in ...

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Bert Chakovsky

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