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Human Genetics Highlights

23andMe Human Genetics Highlights In celebration of DNA Day 2015, 23andMe takes a look back at the scientific and company milestones that have impacted the study of human genetics. From the first published paper on the structure of DNA in 1953 to the FDA's marketing authorization of 23andMe's direct-to-consumer Bloom Syndrome carrier status report in 2015, we've tracked some noteworthy discoveries and innovations in genetics. Learn about human genetics and how 23andMe has contributed to the field. 1952 Rosalind Franklin uses X-ray diffraction to produce the first image of DNA 1953 James D. Watson and Francis Crick publish the first scientific paper on the double helix structure of DNA X-ray diffraction image of DNA 1961 Marshall Nirenberg cracks the genetic code Top: thymine and adenine Bottom: cytosine and guanine G G G CT 1977 Frederick Sanger and colleagues develop G AT C TA CT C Sanger sequencing, the most widely used method of DNA sequencing for the next 25 years CTA GAT GA G TCC AT 1984 Alec Jeffreys develops DNA fingerprinting, setting the stage for the use of DNA evidence 1986 Anita Harding and John Morgan-Hughes publish the discovery of the first identification of a mitochondrial DNA mutation in human disease 1990 Mary-Claire King discovers BRCA1, the first gene known to be associated with hereditary breast cancer 17p13.2 17p12 17q12 BRCA1 Mitochondrial DNA 17q21.2 17q22 17q23.2 1993 Scientists identify the gene that causes Huntington's disease 17q24.1 BRCA1 location in chromosome 17 2001 GleevecĀ®, the first drug designed to treat a specific cancer-causing genetic mutation, is approved by the FDA, a major early step for precision medicine 2003 The Human Genome Project announces that their finished sequence covers 99 percent of the genome Top: protein encoded by healthy gene Bottom: protein encoded by Huntington's disease gene 2005 The first genome-wide association study (GWAS) is conducted using 96 patients with age-related mascular degeneration and 50 healthy controls 2006 23andMe is founded in Mountain View, California 2007 23andMe launches a "web-based service 2008 Time Magazine names 23andMe's Personal empowering individuals to access and understand their own genetic information." The price is $999 and includes 14 reports Genome Service the 2008 Invention of the Year 2009 23andMe launches its Parkinson's disease genetics initiative 2010 23andMe receives funding from the National Institutes of Health to evaluate web-based research 2010 The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology publishes the first sequence of the Neanderthal genome on the genetics of drug response 2011 23andMe finds two new genes associated with Parkinson's disease 2012 23andMe identifies five significant genetic associations for Hypothyroidism 2012 Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier discover the CRISPR/Cas9 enzyme that enables human genome editing New associations found in chromosome 4 and 17 2013 The Supreme Court unanimously decides to bar the patenting of human genes 2013 23andMe identifies multiple genetic factors impacting the development of nearsightedness in the largest GWAS on myopia 2014 In partnership with Pfizer, 23andMe launches an Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) research community 2014 Researchers at the Broad Institute and Harvard University sequence more than 99 Ebola virus genomes to improve diagnosis and treatment 2015 President Obama launches the Precision Medicine Initiative, an emerging approach to disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment and lifestyle 2015 23andMe partners with Genentech to analyze genomic data for Parkinson's disease 2015 23andMe receives authorization from the FDA to market the first direct-to-consumer genetic test for Bloom Syndrome 2015 23andMe reaches more than 900,000 genotyped customers

Human Genetics Highlights

shared by 23andMe on Apr 20
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In celebration of DNA Day, 23andMe took a look back at highlights in human genetics history. From the first published paper on DNA in 1953 to the first GWAS in 2005, here are some noteworthy innovatio...

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