Transcript

The Future of Baby Making

The FUTURE OF BABY MAKING Genetically Engineered Children 40,000 BABIES born in the U.S. each year are conceived via assisted reproduction 22 Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) has been used since the 90s PGD: profiling of embryos or eggs prior to implantation in order to screen for specific genetic conditions 75% embryos created in a lab of US fertility clinics surveyed in 2006 offered PGD genetically selected embryos 4-6% of all IVF cycles include PGD DISEASES SEX SELECTION Embryo screening was first used to avoid having children with cystic fibrosis as early as 1990 The United States is one 2008: of the few countries in the world that still legally allows PGD for prenatal sex selection the first baby born guaranteed to not have the breast cancer gene Boy or Girl Prenatal sex selection is illegal for use for nonmedical reasons in Some parents want their children to have the same conditions that they do: 3% of U.S. fertility clinics (4 out of 137) that perform embryo screening already have performed procedures to help couples purposely create children with a disability such as dwarfism or deafness Canada The U.K. Australia "COSMETIC MEDICINE" BABIES Allows the selection of physical traits through PGD, but not for any specific medical reason gender and complexion: a son with brown eyes, black hair and a dark complexion, or a pale, blonde, green-eyed daughter The cost for the process will be about $18,000 the approximate cost of IVF with donor sperm is $13,000 per cycle HOW DO PEOPLE FEEL ABOUT EXPERT OPINIONS 'DESIGNER BABIES'? Let parents choose a child's traits? - 8% Arthur Caplan, a bioethicist at the University of Pennsylvania: "Testing may move to conditions like shyness, obesity and homosexuality, which some may find undesirable. But many people, if not most, would find it repugnant 0/ 070 No, should be banned to treat those as diseases" 15% 32% William Kearns, a medical geneticist, claims he's been able to get enough DNA from a cell to identify thousands of characteristics of the embryo Yes, to prevent a health condition Not sure 15% Yes, parents should have free Of 42 embryos tested, he could identify SNPS that relate to northern European skin, hair and eye pigmentation in 80% of the samples 30% choice No, its immoral SNP- Single-nucleotide polymorphism: a DNA sequence variation Of 1,000 people who sought genetic counseling, supported selection for 75% 56% 13% 10% 10% mental retardation blindness superior intelligence improved height athletic ability IGM: INHERITABLE GENETIC MODIFICATION The not too distant future of baby making How IGM Works: 'Mitochondrial Replacement': construct an egg or embryo using DNA from two women to create a child who has almost all of one woman's genes, but another woman's mitochondrial DNA intended parent embryo with unhealthy mitochondria donor embryo with healthy mitochondria Medical Use: would allow a woman with a certain subset of mitochondrial disease to have an unaffected child By mutating 18% of mtDNA, an individual has 95% or greater chance of being unaffected by a mitochondrially related diseases unhealthy mitochondria healthy mitochondria Other forms of IGM in the works: gene transfer, stem cell and cloning intended parents" pronuclei transferred donor pronuclei removed Potential of IGM: Completely remove risk of inheritable diseases Increase a child's personality, physical characteristics, athletic ability and intellect Proponents also say that IGM will not cease even if banned reconstructed embryo Sources Presented by http://www.bionews.org.uk/page_95763.asp http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123439771603075099.html http://guanabee.com/2009/03/dr-jeff-steinberg-baby-color-poll/ http://www.genengnews.com/gen-polls/designer-babies/165/ http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/infertility/DS00310/DSECTION=causes http://www.livescience.com/27206-genetic-engineering-babies-debate.html http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=6998135&page=1#.UW7BS7WTHXE http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/17/gender-selection-_n_1889991.html http://healthyliving.msn.com/pregnancy-parenting/advice/designing-your-baby-1 http://forums.canadiancontent.net/international-politics/59352-designer-babies.html http://www.cmu.edu/art/news/2012/theethicsofinheritablegeneticmodification_ch2.pdf http://abcnew8.go.com/GMA/Technology/story?id=2626668&page=1#.UYeoQbWThMM http://www.npr.org/2013/02/15/172137776/should-we-prohibit-genetically-engineered-babies http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/genetic-inequality-human-genetic-engineering-768 http://www.infertilityrepronews.com/content/ivf-often-chosen-family-building-same-sex-couples http://blog.practicalethics.ox.ac.uk/2012/11/do-we-want-gentically-modified-children-yes-of-course/ http://www.centerforhumanreprod.com/blog/dr-kushnir-presents-on-mitochondrias-role-in-female-fertility/ http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2013/03/29/seen-at-11-new-technology-can-make-it-so-1-baby-has-3-parents http://www.watoday.com.au/world/la-delivers-first-designerbaby-clinic-20090302-8meq.html#ixzz2SjEg9fOo http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/genetic-crossroads/201303/would-you-genetically-modify-your-baby http://www.watoday.com.au/world/la-delivers-first-designerbaby-clinic-20090302-8meq.html#ixzz2SjG61HVS http://abcnews.go.com/Health/OnCallPlusBreastCancerNews/story?id=5278365&page=2#.UYqcjrWThMM http://www.ibtimes.com/chinese-scientists-may-soon-be-able-genetically-engineer-smarter-children-1137797 http://globalnews.ca/news/374544/creating-ivf-babies-from-3-parents-garners-public-support-uk-fertility-regulator/ http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/10/fashion/seeking-to-reproduce-without-a-romantic-partnership.html?pagewanted=all http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/9480372/Genetically-engineering-ethical-babies-is-a-moral-obligation-says-Oxford-professor.html CHEAPNURSEDEGREES.COM DEVELOPED BY NOWSOURCING

The Future of Baby Making

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This infographic provides a deeper look into the science behind genetically engineered children.

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