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An Early History of Satellites

AN EARLY HISTORY OF SATELLITES! 1950- 1978 1950 1st SPUTNIK 1 1957 OCTOBER 4th FIRST SATELLITE IN SPACE The word 'Sputnik' originally meant 'fellow traveller'. SPUTNIK 2 2 2nd NOVEMBER 3rd THE FIRST BIOLOGICAL SPACECRAFT The first being to travel to outer space was a female part-Samoyed terrier called Laika. {3rd 1958 EXPLORER 1 JANUARY 31 st THE FIRST SATELLITE LAUNCHED BY THE US It was the first spacecraft to detect the Van Allen radiation belt. The Van Allen Belt is one of at least two layers of energetic charged particles that is held in place around the planet Earth by the planet's magnetic field. 4th VANGUARD 1 5th EXPLORER 3 MARCH 17th .MARCH 26th THREE STAGE SATELLITE FIRST SUCCESSFUL FOLLOW-ON TO EXPLORER 1 Nearly identical to the first United States artificial satellite Explorer 1 in its design arid mission. It was designed to test the launch capabilities of a three-stage launch vehicle. 6th SPUTNIK 3 MAY 15th 7th THE ONLY SOVIET SATELLITE LAUNCHED IN 1958 It was a research satellite to explore the upper atmosphere and the near space. SCORE DECEMBER 18th • THE WORLD'S FIRST COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE It provided a first test of a communications relay system in space, sending back to earth a recorded Christmas message from President 1960 O 8th TIROS NASA APRIL 1st TELEVISION INFRARED OBSERVATION SATELLITE (9th ECHO 1 Was NASA's first experimental step to determine if satellites could be useful in the study of the Earth. AUGUST 12th RADIO COMMUNICATIONS Acting as a passive reflector of microwave signals. Communication signals were bounced off it from one point on Earth to another. 10th N.A.S.A. COURIER 1B OCTOBER 4th TELECOMMUNICATIONS It could record messages from an earth station and rebroadcast them. 11th ARIEL 1 1962 APRIL 26th NASA THE FIRST BRITISH SATELLITE It was designed to contribute to the current knowledge of the ionosphere and of sun-ionosphere relationships. The ionosphere is a region of the upper atmosphere, from about 85 km to 600 km altitude. 12th TELSTAR 1 13th JULY 10th ALOUETTE 1 THE DAY INFORMATION WENT GLOBAL SEPȚEMBER 29th The world's first active communication CANADA'S FIRST SATELLITE satellite, enabling TV programs to be The name "Alouette" came from the French "skylark" and from the title of a popular French-Canadian folk song. broadcast across the Atlantic. 14th RELAY NASA DECEMBER 13th A TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE Relay 1 was the first satellite to broadcast television from the United States to Japan. 1964 15th SYNCOM 3 NASA AUGUST 19th FIRST GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE The satellite provided live television coverage of the 1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo, Japan and conducted various 16th communications tests. SAN MARCO DECEMBER 15th THE FIRST ITALIAN SATELLITE San Marco 1 was an Italian flight test of the satellite to furnish data on air density and ionosphere characteristics. 17th MOLNIYA -1 1965 OCTOBER 19th FIRST SOVIET COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE A military communications satellite. Molniya means "lightning" in Russian. ASTÉRIX NOVEMBER 26th FRANCE'S FIRST SATELLITE With Astérix France became the sixth country to have an artificial satellite. 1966 19th ATS-1 DECEMBER 7th APPLICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SATELLITE (ATS) It transmitted weather images and data to ground stations, as well as video feeds for television broadcasting. 1967 20th INTELSAT II JANUARY 26th 21st PART OF A SERIES OF FOUR COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES The apogee monitor malfunctioned and resulted in the spacecraft ending up in an elliptical orbit. WRESAT NOVEMBER 29th THE FIRST AUSTRALIAN SATELLITE Abbreviation for: Weapons Research Establishment Satellite. 1969 22nd INTELSAT III JULY 26th GLOBAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS 23rd The Intelsat 3 spacecraft was used to relay commercial global telecommunications including live TV. AZUR NOVEMBER 8th FIRST GERMAN SATELLITE It studied the Van Allen belts, solar particles, and aurorae. 1970 24th OHSUMI FEBRUARY 11 th FIRST JAPANESE SATELLITE Named after the Osumi Province in the southern islands of Japan. It was used to study satellite launch technologies by M (Mu) rockets. 25th DONG FANG HONG APRIL 24th FIRST CHINESE SATELLITE The primary satellite mission was to broadcast the song "Dong Fang Hong" meaning The East is Red', paying tribute to Chairman Mao. 26th UHURU DECEMBER 12th THE SMALL ASTRONOMICAL SATELLITE . It was on the first earth-orbiting mission dedicated entirely to celestial X-ray astronomy. 1971 27th PROSPERO ОСТОВЕR THE LITTLE SATELLITE THAT COULD It was designed to conduct experiments to test the technologies necessary for 28th communication. ARIEL 4 DECEMBER 1 1th BRITISH IONOSPHERIC RESEARCH SATELLITE Was a small observatory designed to investigate the interactions between electromagnetic waves, plasmas, and energetic particles present in the upper ionosphere. 1974 29th WESTAR 1 APRIL 13th GEOSYNCHRONOUS COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE Westar 1 was America's first domestic communications satellite, it was launched by NASA for Western Union. 30th ANS AUGUST 30th 31st FIRST NETHERLANDS SATELLITE It was a space-based X-ray and ultraviolet telescope. INTASAT NOVMEMBER 15th FIRST SPANISH SATELLITE INTASAT stands for, Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial Satélite. In English, National Institute of Aerospace Technology. 1975 ARYABHATTA 32nd APRIL 19th INDIA'S FIRST SATELLITE Named after an ancient Indian. mathematician, who was the first in the line of great mathematician-astronomers. 33rd RCA SATCOM DECEMBER SATCOM: SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Satcom-1 was widely used by both cable and broadcast TV networks, allowing for the ground-breaking transmission of early cable television innovators. 1976 (34th MARISAT FEBRUARY 1 9th FIRST MARITIME TELECOMMUNICATIONS Was designed to provide dependable . telecommunications for commercial shipping and the U.S Navy. PALAPΑ Α1 JULY 8th THE FIRST INDONESIAN SATELLITE The name Palapa also alludes to the "Palapa Oath" taken by Gajah Mada, a 14th-century" Prime Minister of the Javanese Majapahit Empire. 1978 36th MAGION 1 NOVEMBER 14th CZECHOSLOVAKIAN SUB-SATELLITE It was designed to carry ionospheric-type experiments related to the International Magnetospheric Study. A magnetosphere is the area of space near an astronomical object in which charged particles'are controlled by that object's magnetic field. SCIENCE.NASA,GOV/MISSIONS/TIROS/ NSSDC.GSFC.NASA.GOV/NMC/SPACECRAFTDISPLAY.DOPID=1960-009A NSSDC.GSFC.NASA.GOV/NMC/SPACECRAFTDISPLAY.DO?ID=1962-015A NSSDC.GSFC.NASA.GOV/NMC/SPACECRAFTDISPLAY.DOPID=1962-068A EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/AST%C3%A9RIX_[SATELLITE) EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/MOLNIYA_(SATELLITE) NSSDC.GSFC.NASA.GOV/NMC/SPACECRAFTDISPLAY.DOPID=1966-11OẢ • EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/ATS-1 EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/INTELSAT I SPACE.SKYROCKET.DE/DOC_SDAT/INTELSAT-3.HTM EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/%C5%8CSUMI_(SATELLITE) ARCHEOLOGYOFTHEFUTURE.BLOGSPOT.CO.UK/2006/04/PROSPERO-LITTLE-SATELLITE-THAT-COULD.HTML EN WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/ARYABHATA_[SATELLITE) www.LOCKHEEDMARTIN.CO.UK/US/100YEARS/STORIES/SATCOM.HTML EN WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/SATCOM_(SATELLITE) EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/PALAPA broadbandwherever 18th 35th

An Early History of Satellites

shared by shawnhunt on Mar 13
Here we take a look at the beginnings of satellites, from Sputnik to Magion 1 and the all of the most notable in between – the results are out of this world!


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