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Discovering Damage Within Our DNA

DISCOVERING DAMAGE WITHIN OUR DNA A look at the most common forms of damage to our DNA and how that damage can affect our bodies. QUICK FACTS ABOUT DNA 99.5% of your DNA is shared with every other person on the planet! 1953 The structure of DNA was discovered in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick. GUANINE ADENINE CYTOSINE DNA's chemical makeup THYMINE DNA DAMAGE VS DNA MUTATION DNA DAMAGE DNA MUTATION Not Recognized by enzymes recognized by enzymes Correctly repaired Cannot be repaired Replicates Replicates healthy DNA • mutated DNA Note: Errors during replication or repair of damaged DNA can turn into mutation. DNA EXPLORING 4 TYPES OF DAMAGE Oxidative stress occurs when the body is exposed to too many electrically charged, aggressive oxygen compounds. OXIDATIVE DAMAGE HOW ARE WE EXPOSED? OXIDATIVE DAMAGE NORMAL DNA REPLICATION DNA repair 8 - xoG Ongoing stress NORMAL DNA Breathing Oxidative Damage UV light X-Rays 8 - xOG REPLICATION Mutated DNA WHY IS IT BAD? High levels of oxidative stress can overwhelm the body's natural defenses and destroy genetic material, resulting in 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHDG), a common marker for oxidative damage. POSSIBLE EFFECTS Decreased DNA repair Increased susceptibility to cancer (colon, breast, prostate) HYDROLYTIC & METABOLIC DAMAGE Hydrolytic and metabolic processes can naturally result in DNA damage. These naturally occurring damages take place in our bodies more than 60,000 times per day! HOW DOES IT HAPPEN? .. Biochemical Overabundance of reactive reactions of oxygen species (ROS) various ROS: chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen metabolites WHY IS IT BAD? POSSIBLE EFFECTS This type of damage contributes to a loss of DNA bases called AP Inhibited transcription (apurinic/apyrimidinic) sites, which are easily mutated. Replication of mutated cells Progression of cancer DNA STRAND BREAK DAMAGE Strand breaks can occur in one or both of the DNA strands due to ultraviolet light and other types of radiation. UV-INDUCED DAMAGE UV-B light Occurs in areas on the body that are directly exposed to UV-B light Direct DNA damage Pyrimidine dimers UV-A light Absorbed into Chromophore and travels though body with potential to affect other areas of body (even inner organs) Free Radicals Indirect DNA Damage POSSIBLE EFFECTS Inhibits expression of multiple genes Mutations Progression of skin cancers TOXIC POLLUTANT DAMAGE HOW DOES IT HAPPEN? Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) which are potent atmospheric pollutants. The following are examples of damaging pollutants. Oil Coal S Cigarette smoke Automobile exhaust fumes POSSIBLE EFFECTS Permanent mutations Cell transformation Tumor development THE REAL ISSUE WITH DNA DAMAGE When the rate of DNA damage becomes more than the cell can handle, repair errors take place and overwhelm the cell. This disruption can result in: Early senescence (biological aging) Apoptosis (cell death) which can lead to atrophy ocsong Cancer (uncontrolled cell growth of the damaged cell) TIPS FOR PREVENTING DAMAGE TO YOUR DNA Healthy diet UV Regular exercise protection Brought to you by Cell Biolabs I www.cellbiolabs.com Sources http://www.cellbiolabs.com/DNA-Damage-Causes-Effects http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111227153752.htm http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/deamination?s=t http://www.cellbiolabs.com/dna-rna-damage http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrimidine_dimer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymerase http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_repair#DNA_damage http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indirect DNA_damage http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carcinogenesis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genome_instability http://blog.23andme.com/news/hey-its-dna-day/ http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/dna http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_damage_(naturally_occurring) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_oxygen_species http://www.prevention.com/health/healthy-living/dean-ornish-prostate-cancer-study-reverse-dna-damage%20 REPLICATION DNA REPAIR

Discovering Damage Within Our DNA

shared by cellbiolabs on May 07
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A look at the most common forms of damage to our DNA and how that damage can affect our bodies.

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Cell Biolabs

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Science
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