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The Cosmic Calendar

A guide to grasping the immensity of time THE COSMIC CALENDAR by Carl Sagan Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec JAN 1, 00:00:00 RIGHT NOW The Universe is Born The first second of the new year Imagine that the entire history of the universe is Origin of the Solar Sytem Sep 09, 00:00:00 Widespread development of science and technology, compressed into one year - with the Big Bang emergence of global culture, acquisition of the means Formation of the Earth Sep 14, 00:00:00 of self-destruction of the human species, first steps corresponding to the first second of the New Year's Day, and the present time to the Origin of life on Earth Sep 25, 00:00:00 in spacecraft planetary exploration and the search last second of December 31st (midnight) of extraterrestrial intelligence Formation of the oldest rocks known on Earth Oct 02, 00:00:00 Date of oldest fossils (bacteria and blue-green algae) Oct 09, 00:00:00 Invention of sex (by microorganisms) Nov 01, 00:00:00 Oldest fossil photosynthetic plants Nov 12, 00:00:00 Eukaryotes (first cells with nuclei) flourish Nov 15, 00:00:00 0.16 SEC = AVG HUMAN LIFESPAN %3D Significant oxygen atmosphere begins to develop on Earth Dec 01, 00:00:00 1 SECOND = 475 YEARS 1 MINUTE = 28,500 YEARS 1 HOUR = 1.7 MILLION YEARS 1 DAY = 41 MILLION YEARS 1 MONTH = 1.3 BILLION YEARS 1 YEAR = 15 BILLION YEARS Extensive volcanism and channel formation on Mars Dec 05, 00:00:00 First Worms Dec 16, 00:00:00 %3D Precambrian ends. Paleozoic Era and Cambrian Period begin. Invertebrates flourish Dec 17, 00:00:00 First oceanic plankton. Trilobites flourish Dec 18, 00:00:00 1 Month Ago Ordovician Period. First fish, first vertebrates Dec 19, 00:00:00 %3D Silurian Period. First vascular plants. Plants begin colonization of land Dec 20, 00:00:00 Devonian Period begins. First insects. Animals begin colonization of land Dec 21, 00:00:00 First amphibians. First winged insects Dec 22, 00:00:00 Carboniferous Period. First trees. First reptiles Dec 23, 00:00:00 Permian Period begins. First dinosaurs Dec 24, 00:00:00 Paleozoic Era ends. Mesozoic Era Begins Dec 25, 00:00:0O Triassic Period. First mammals Dec 26, 00:00:00 Jurassic Period. First birds Dec 27, 00:00:00 Cretaceous Period. First flowers. Dinosaurs become extinct Dec 28, 00:00:00 1 Week Ago Mesozoic Era ends. Cenozoic Era and Tertiary Period begin. First cetaceans. First primates Dec 29, 00:00:00 First evolution of frontal lobes in the brains of primates. First hominids Dec 30, 00:00:00 End of Pliocene Period. Quaternary (Pleistocene and Holocene) Period Dec 31, 00:00:00 Origin of Proconsul and Ramapithecus, probable ancestors of apes and men Dec 31, 13:30:00 First humans Dec 31, 22:30:00 Widespread use of stone tools Dec 31, 23:00:00 Domestication of fire by Peking man Dec 31, 23:46:00 1 Day Ago Beginning of most recent glacial period Dec 31, 23:56:00 Neanderthals become extinct Dec 31, 23:58:00 Extensive cave painting in Europe Dec 31, 23:59:00 Invention of agriculture Dec 31, 23:59:20 Neolithic civilization; first cities Dec 31, 23:59:35 First dynasties in Sumer, Ebla and Egypt; development of astronomy Dec 31, 23:59:50 Invention of the alphabet; Akkadian Empire Dec 31, 23:59:51 Hammurabic legal codes in Babylon; Middle Kingdom in Egypt Dec 31, 23:59:52 Bronze metallurgy; Mycenaean culture; Trojan War; Olmec culture; invention of the compass Dec 31, 23:59:53 Iron metallurgy; First Assyrian Empire; Kingdom of Israel; founding of Carthage by Phoenicia Dec 31, 23:59:54 10 Seconds Ago Asokan India; Ch'in Dynasty China; Periclean Athens; birth of Buddha Dec 31, 23:59:55 Euclidean geometry; Archimedean physics; Ptolemaic astronomy; Roman Empire; birth of Christ Dec 31, 23:59:56 Zero and decimals invented in Indian arithmetic; Rome falls; Birth of Islam and the Islamic Civilization Dec 31, 23:59:57 Mayan civilization; Sung Dynasty China; Byzantine empire; Mongol invasion; Crusades Dec 31, 23:59:58 Renaissance in Europe; voyages of discovery from Europe and from Ming Dynasty China Dec 31, 23:59:59 5 Seconds Ago

The Cosmic Calendar

shared by mike.arney on Nov 26
Derived from the work of Carl Sagan. A guide to grasping the immensity of time.


Mike Arney




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