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Party Congress 101

shanghaiist's guide to the 18th CPC National Congress (+EIA) Last week, thousands of delegates descended upon Beijing to form the 18th CPC National Congress. Shanghaiist has a rundown of everything you'll need to know about the handover. shang shanghaiist Overview What is it? What goes on? The Communist Party of China (CPC) National Congress is a party congress that is held once every five years in China, with major leadership transitions taking place every 10years. Not to be confused with the National People's Congress (NPC), the legislature, the CPC National Congress is a gathering of the party to select its new leaders for the official government leadership transition in March 2013. Details about the daily happenings of the CPC National Congress are usually vague, but the main focus of the week-long meetings is to elect a new General Secretary to lead the Party over the next decade. In addtion to electing new party leaders, the CPC National Congress takes care of other Party business, including: • Hearing and examines Central Committee & Central Commission for Discipline Inspection reports • Revising the Party Constitution • Discussing and deciding major questions concerning the party • Revising the Party Constitution • Electing the Central Committee & Central Commission for Discipline Inspection Government Structure Party Structure General Secretary of the Central Committee Party (CPC) Central Committee of the CPC Standing Bureau of the Political Bureau Political Bureau of the Central Committee Secretariate of the Central Committee National Congress of the CPC Central Military Commission of the CPC Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the CPC Army (PLA) State (NPC) The Handover Timeline China's leadership transition involves a series of coordinated handovers of power within the three main tiers of the political system (Party, Army and State). The CPC National Congress is just the beginning -- the other two branches will collectively follow suit over the next few months. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. August First Nov. March TBA 2012 week of 8-14 2013 Former President (Hu Jintaol steps down as Chairman of Nov. Selection of new government, including President and Premier President appoints State Council NPC approves. Delegates selected for CPC National According to Patrick Chovanec of Tsinghua University, "The Party is supreme and rules over the other two elements." CPC National Congress. Old party members held Party Secretary. Politburo and step down. Central Military Commission. Caktee selected. Party Membership & CPC National Congresss Growth 13 Delgates 2,000 Delgates 2,074 Delgates 2,213 Delgates 2,270 Delgates 2,120 Delgates st 50 Party Members 51 million Party members 59 million Party members 66 million Party members 73 million Party members 82.6 million Party members 1921 1992 1997 2002 2007 2012 1st Party Congress shan 14th Party Congress 17th Party Congress 18th Party 15th Party Congress 16th Party Congress Congress changhat The Delegates Where do the delegates come from? The 2,270 delegates selected to attend the National Party Congress are selected through a series of staggered elections held by grassroots party organizations. They represent 82.6 million Party members and 4 million grassroots party cells. Key 251 100+ delegates 70-99 shangh People's Liberation Army 60-69 48 Tianjin 50-59 I 64 Beijing 50 Heilongjiang 40-49 30 184 0-39 Ningxia Central State Organs 37 Jilin 63 42 108 Institutions Directly under the CPC Central 40 39 Gansu Xinjiang 62 Inner Hebei Mongolia 42 Sharxi 75 Committe 28 Ginghai 43 68 52 70 56 Shaanxi Central state- Henan 28 62 Hubei Anhui 50 Zhejiang owned enterprises system lin Beijingl Tibet 72 73 Sichuan Shanghai 42 Jiangi 41 49 63 38 Guizhou People's Armed Police Force Hunan Fujian 42 Chongging 47 46 Yunnan 42 Guangxi 2,270 Central Financial System 69 26 Guangdong Hainan Total Delegates, an increase of 57 from the 17th CPC National Congress. The delegates represent 40 constituences 28 Others (including 3 from HK/Macau) aiist 5% under 25 7% 11% 23% 70% 70% 94% Migrant worker delegates Ethnic minority delegates Female delegates Below 55 years of age Party leaders College degrees ог abowe hanghaiis The New Regime One in 38,000 Politburo Standing Committee (7-9 members) Central Committee (200-300 members] Politburo (25 members) The 2,270 delegates selected to attend the National Party Congress represent a little less than 0.003% of the total Communist Party membership base. Each delegate represents approximately 38,000 Party members. With just under 3,000 representatives, the National People's Congress, elected in March, will boast similar percentages. National People's Congress |-3,000 membersi 82.6 million Registered party members in China (2011 estimate) The #5 ranked Politburo Politburo Standing Commitee 5 member, charge e Seven of the nine Politburo Standing Committee members are expected to retire in March. With 70% of the Central Miltary Commission retiring and 100% State Council turnover, it will be China's largest handover in decades. Here's a (completely speculated) list of the leaders expected to take over. Propganda, became a Standing Committee position in 2002. It is expected to be downgraded in March Chairman of the Central Guidance Li Changchun Unknown Commission for Building Spiritual Civilization Key O Both 17th and 18th O Downgraded to Politburo OCurrent Speculated members of membes of the18th NPC 120 13-2018) 17th NPC |2008-2013| The #6 ranked Politburo Since 1993, the person official, the Vice President usually goes on to hold higher positions. Hu Jintao served as VP under Jiang Zemin chosen to be the General Secretary of the CPC has always gone on to be 'elected" President by the NPC in March Secretariat President, General Secretary Secretary and Vice President Xi Jinping Li Yuanchao Hu Jintao Xi Jinping As with the #6 ranked The #2 ranked Politburo official is usually both the Chairman and Party Secretary of the NPC. Shanghai party boss Yu Zhengsheng is rumored pext NPC ch Politburo official, the Vice Premier usually goes on to hold higher positions. Wen Jiabao also served this position under Jiang. 2 First Vice NPC Premier Chairman & Party Secretary Li Kegiang Wang Oishan chief. Wu Bangguo Yu Zhengsheng be the The #8 ranked Politburo official is in charge of stamping out corruption with party officials. This Secretary usually doesn't go on to hold a State Position. 8. The #3 ranked official 3 tends to be both Premier and Party Secretary of the State Council. In practice, the Council is the de facto force of law, above the NPC. Secretary of the Central State Council Chairman & Party Secretary Commission for Disciplinary He Guogiang Inspection Wang Yang Wen Jiabao Li Keqiang The Chinese People's Political Consultative Congress (CPPCC)) is an advisory body that holds yearly meetings to discuss national issues. The #9 ranked Politburo member, in charge of Law Enforcement, was also added to the 4 Secretary of the Central Political and Legislative Committee Standing Committee in 2002. The position will Likely be downgraded. CPPCC Chairman & Party Secretary Zhou Yongkang Unknown The Party Secretary is usually CPPCC chair Jia Qinglin Zhang Dejiang Other contenders: Liu Yandong, Liu Yunshan, Zhang Gaoli *members are speculated History Party Congress throughout the years Usually occuring every five years in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, the CPC National Congress has led to historically significant leadership changes and the introduction of Party Constitution ideologies. Here are some highlights. 1st Congress (-tI July 1921 Shanghai & Jiaxing Delegates: 12 Party members: 50 9th Congress II April 1969 Beijing Delegates: 1,512 Party members: 22 million shan 16th Congress It The first Party Platform is passed. Mao Zedong attends, representing Hunan. November 2002 Held at the peak of the Cultural Revolution, the Party is nearly destroyed by political infighting. PLA's influence on Party administration is significant. Former State Chairman Liu Shaoqi and former CPC General Secretary Deng Xiaoping labelled as"traitorous scabs and renegades." Mao Thought reinserted into CPC Party Constitution. Beijing Delegates: 2,114 |140 specially invited) Party members: 66 million Hu Jintao elected General Secretary. Jiang Zemin's "Three Represents" theory enshrined in CPC Constitution. 7th Congress ItI April -June 1945 Yan'an, Shaanxi Delegates: 544 (208 alternates) Party members: 1.21 million Party constitution passes and Mao Zedong is named leader of CPC. "Mao Zedong Thought" enshrined in CPC Party Constitution for first time. 12th Congress (+I September 1982 Beijing Delegates: 1,600 (149 alternates) Party members: 39.6 million Central Advisory Commission and Central Discipline Inspection Commission established. 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 shanghail 11th Congress (t- 15th Congress (+EI August 1977 Beijing Delegates: 1,510 Party members: 35 million 8th Congress (AI September 1956 Beijing Delegates: 1,026 (107 alternates) Party members: 10,730,000 September 1997 Beijing Felegates: 2,074 (60 specially invited) Party members: 59.9 million First Party Congress following Mao's death and the downfall of the Gang of Four. Deng Xiaoping is First Congress following death of Deng Xiaoping and the reversion of Hong Kong to China in July of 1997. Deng Xiaoping's philosophy added to Party constitution. reinstated to all of his previous posts. First Congress following establishment of the PRC. Mao Thought is temporarily removed from ČPC Party Constitution 6th Congress (tI 17th Congress IttX October 2007 June-July 1928 Moscow Delegates: 84 (34 alternates) Party members: -40,000 Beijing Delegates: 2,217 Party members: 73 million Chiang Kai-shek's anti-CPC crackdown forces Congress to be held outside of China for the first and only time. Hu Jintao's Scientific Development Concept is added to the Party Constitution as an official ideology. Sources: BBC,, China Daily, Patrick Chovanec, Daily Telegraph, The Jamestown Foundation, Matrix, Reuters Graphic by Bridget O'Donnell/Shanghaiist

Party Congress 101

shared by bridgetodonnell on Aug 09
Infographic explaining how the Communist Party of China elects the country's top leaders.


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