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How Our Laws Are Made

+, "Congeen vhall have Power...Ea make all shall haue HOW CBO Budget office is a non-partisan office charged with checking and creating budget estimates. A bill originating in the Senate must go through HOR approval before going to the President. or Congressional Senator HOR Act Bill Meetings* Lobbyist The code of a bill *See HOR Committee Work section for details lawr whech shall be Public Hearings* H. R. 301 [110] Final Reading & Vote* necewary and paoper" CBO must confirm the bill adheres to spending and Introducing Legislation Mark Up* could fail to pass. LAWS A R E MADE House Repre # in which bill was received senta Of tives Congressional Session revenue constraints in most recent budget. SEN has 100 members and 16 U.S. Constitution Article 1 Section 8 could be "tabled". Report* standing committees. Reconciliation Committee Work Put on Calendar Budget& Engrossment Any Senator can call up Bill Called Up a bill at the conclusion of moming business. +, Filibuster: A Senator or group of could fail to pass. A simple majority required to pass a bil. House Vote THE SENATE Unlimited debate. Amend- ments do not have to be gemane. Discussion ends when no one seeks to be recognized. Senators deliver speeches and "hold" the floor indefinitely, hoping the prolonged debate will preventpassage of a bill. Afilibus- ter can only be ended if a motion to end it is caried by 60 votes (a super majority). could filibuster or return to committee could send back to committee Vote on each amendment individually. Senate Action House Action Debate & Amend Debate closes Debate & Amend Lobbyist Committee Rises Debate ends and pre- Third Reading siding chair calls for a ESENTATIVES HOR can approve as amended OR vote. +, Bill read section by section only germane amendments proposed and must include a list of "earmarks". A Reconciliation bil is part of A Lobbyist is an activist paid by an interest group to promote their position in the legislature. He/She can also work to change public opinion through advertising and other media outlets. + Second Reading Kequest a conference A simple majority is required Senate Vote to pass a bill, but the frequent could fail to pass. the budget process and allows Congress to make changes in law to conform with budget levels set in the budget resolution. It has become an altemative way to pass con- tentious legislation in the Senate because it only requires a simple majority to pass. $ Conterente threat of a filibuster has meant that a super majority is needed more often. Quorum of one hundred required to open debate. Chair determines length of debate. Lobbyist Amended Committee of the Whole Un Back to HOR could fail to reach a compromise amended Represen tative Put on Calendar +, A senator on the prevailing 2 Day Wait side or who abstained can calla motion to recommit. Each conference committee Enroll ment Lobbyist Like a bill, but less Committee Assignment must report to their respective chambers and both HOR and could be "tabled". Includes purpose and justifica- tion for bill; explains how it changes existing law; offers a cost estimate for implementation. SEN must pass a report before the bill goes to the President. common Report Joint A State Legislature Publilaw Resolution Committee Work Final Reading Vote on final amendments & Vote Final Bill and proposed bill as a whole. Introducing Legislation could fail to pass. either chamber could reject conference report Approval or Disapproval The People Mark Up Editand revise to reflect hearings. THE PRESIDENT cation could be "tabled". Con Meetings Public Hearings Collect information and testimony from opponents and supporters. Simple Resolution +, Current Resolution The President has ten days to sign a bill into law or veto it OR the bill automatically becomes a law. Congress can override with a 2/3 majority. A Pocket Veto occurs when Lobbyist Executive Not the President fails to sign a bill into law AND Congress adjourns BEFORE ten days expire. Branch Legislation Regards House Operations HOR has 435 members and 20 standing committees. Preșident could reject. LEGEND All legislation involving appropriations must originate in HOR. Lobbying Opportunity Extra Information Chance for Failure Path of Bill A collaboration of Mike Wirth & Dr. Suzanne Cooper Guasco Ph.D. 2010 Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under OO http:/ Data from "How Laws are Made" by John V. Sullivan. Rev. 6.24.07 + Ş HOUSE O FR

How Our Laws Are Made

shared by mikewirth on Apr 18
How do American laws become laws? If School House Rock didn't answer all your questions on this complex and often convoluted process, read on.


Mike Wirth


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