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How Do People Make Their Voices Heard?

How do people make their voices heard? POLITICAL VOICE The ability to express your views and interests and to influence policy and decision-making processes Social movements Parliaments Protests Electoral quotas Public fora Social media Communication technology Participatory decision-making Elections Access to information laws Political parties Media NGOS How do people make their voices heard? All but 5 countries in the world have held national elections between 2000–2012 CHINA accounts for 51.3% of people not living in formal democratic SAUDI ARABIA ERITREA QATAR UAE systems Sources: Hyde, Susan (2011). The Pseudo-Democrat's Dilemma: Why Election Observation Became an International Norm. New York: Cornell University Press; Personal communication with Susan Hyde, Associate Professor of Political Science and International Affairs, Yale University (22 February 2013); Rocha Menocal, A. (2013). Ten Things to know about democracy and elections'. London: ODI. Available at: How do people make their voices heard? Constitution-making processes can be important moments of public participation and consensus-building INCLUDING Colombia OVER Guatemala 40% South Africa of all constitutions in the 108 world in place by 2008 required approval by public referendum Kenya Tunisia NEW CONSTITUTIONS 1990–2005 Sources: Moehler, Devra C. and Marchant, E. (2013). 'A Multi-Dimensional Model of Participatory Constitution Making and Legitimacy', Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania. Available at:; Elkins, Z., Ginsburg, T. and Blount, J. (2008). 'The Citizen as Founder: Public Participation in Constitutional Approval'. Temple Law Review, 81 (2). Available at: The number of women in How do people make their voices heard? parliament has almost doubled since 1997 LATIN AMERICA (top region) 25.2% 11.7% In more than 100 countries QUOTAS average % women MPs 1997 RESERVED 21.4% RWANDA (top country) have been an 63.8% important impetus for change women in lower house 2014 Sources: 'Women in National Parliaments'. Inter-Parliamentary Union (2014). Available at:; 'Female Political Representation – the use of Electoral Gender Quotas'. European Parliamentary Research Service (2014). Available at: How do people make their voices heard? The growth of NGOS has been exponential NGOS with x50 2014 consultative status 3900 1951 to the United Nations ngo ngo ngo ngo ngo ngo Economic and ngo ngo (ngo) (ngo ngo Social Council ngo ngo ngo (ngo ngo ngo ngo (ngo (ngo) ngo 724 ngo ngo ngo ngo ngo ngo ngo ngo (ngo) ngo 40 ngo ngo ngo (ngo ngo ngo ngo ngo) (ngo ngo ngo ngo (ngo ngo ngo 1948 1992 2013 ngo ngo ngo (ngo) ngo Sources: 'An Overview of NGOS'. United States Institute of Peace. Available at:; 'Changes in the number of non-governmental organizations (NGOS) with consultative status with ECOSOC * 1948 to 2010'. Statista: the Statistics Portal. Available at: How do people make their voices heard? Three quarters of the world's population now have access to ʻright to information' laws 95 5.5 BILLION PEOPLE 2014 COUNTRIES 13 COUNTRIES 1990 Source: 'Access to information laws: overview and statutory goals'. Available at: How do people make their voices heard? People in over 1,500 cities now have a say in how their budgets are spent 1980:1 CITY Porto Alegre, Brazil Source: "Where has it worked?". Participatory Budgeting Project. Available at: How do people make their voices heard? Protests are getting bigger worldwide... 3.5m protested against authoritarian government tactics in Turkey 100m 17m 1.2m protested about quality of life in India protested against corruption and inequality in Brazil protested against Morsi in Egypt 37 protests between 2006–2013 had more than 1 million participants Sources: Ortiz, I.; Burke, S.; Berrada, M.; and Cortés, H. (2013). World Protests 2006-2013. Working Paper, September. New York: Initiative for Policy Dialogue and Friedrick-Ebert-Stiftung. Available at:; 'More than one million join Brazil protests'. Al Jazeera. Available at:; McCoy, T. (2014) 'Turkey bans Twitter - and Twitter explodes'. Washington Post (21 March). Available at: How do people make their voices heard? Billions of people now have mobile phones and internet... DEVELOPING countries DEVELOPED countries IN 2013... 500m WORLDWIDE TWEETS PER DAY A 29% 0.7bn 71% 645m MOBILE PHONE SUBSCRIPTIONS 2000 users f 1.4bn 6bn 23% MOBILE PHONE 77% SUBSCRIPTIONS users 2012 ...that they can use for social mobilisation Sources: World Bank. (2012). Information and Communications for Development 2012: Maximizing Mobile. Washington, DC: World Bank. Available at:; Twitter Statistics'. Statistic Brain. Available at: http://www.statis-; 'Social Networking Statistics'. Statistic Brain. Available at: How do people make their voices heard? Parliaments and parties are vital channels for political voice... 61% 56% 55% 51% 43% 30% Police Parliament Executive leader Army Justice Political system parties but which institutions do people trust? Source: Bergh, G., Rocha Menocal, A. and Rodriguez Takeuchi, L. (2014). What's behind the demand for governance?. London: ODI. Available at: TODAY: OVER 1,500 CITIES

How Do People Make Their Voices Heard?

shared by odi-development on Mar 28
The landscape of political voice is extraordinarily diverse and complex, with people everywhere grabbing opportunities to express their views in a multitude of ways to influence policy and decision-ma...


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