Transcript

Pearl Harbor Attack

70TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE PEARL HARBOR ATTACK Seventy years ago the Japanese attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor, pushing America into World War II. For visitors wishing to pay homage to the American war effort, the harbor offers four major attractions: the submarine USS Bowfin, the battleship USS Missouri, the Pacific Aviation Museum and the watery grave of the USS Arizona. More than 1.5 million visitors annually stand above the Arizona, paying respect to those who died there and remembering that fateful day when America went to war. Here is how it unfolded: At 7:49 a.m., 183 Japanese aircraft pass Waimea Bay. FIRST ATTACK SECOND ATTACK At 8:40 a.m., the second wave arrives off Oahu. 49 HIGH-LEVEL BOMBERS 54 HIGH-LEVEL BOMBERS 51 DIVE BOMBERS 78 DIVE BOMBERS 40 TORPEDO BOMBERS 36 FIGHTERS OPANA 43 FIGHTERS RADAR Waimea U.S. fighters from the small and untargeted airfield at Haleiwa were able to get airborne Bay STATION and shoot down as many as 9 enemy planes in the second wave of attack. Japanese first attack Wheeler Field, then about five minutes later, planes strike at Pearl Harbor. HALEIWA FIELD U.S. had 37 killed and 53 wounded In the midst of the raid, unarmed American B-17 bombers arrived from California. during the attack. Currently, you can take tours of Wheeler Field and Schofield Barricks that include 1940s' P-40 fighters, museums and historical buildings. SCHOFIELD BARRACKS WHEELER FIELD 8 Zeros attack OAHU KANEOHE NAS Bellows, shooting down two U.S. fighters trying to take off. Kaneohe 68 U.S. civilians died during the attack. FORD ISLAND BELLOWS FIELD HICKAM FIELD EWA FIELD During the attack, U.S. Navy scout planes from the USS Enterprise were returning to Pearl Harbor. At least two of these Navy SBDS were destroyed - including one that may have hit a Japanese airplane in mid- air near Ewa Field. NAKAJIMA B5N "KATE" Honolulu PEARL TORPEDO BOMBER The Kate had a crew of three - HARBOR a pilot, navigator/bombardier and a radioman/gunner in the back. The B5N was significantly faster and more capable than its Allied counterparts. Early in the war, in the hands of well- trained Japanese crews, the Kate was effective at the battles of Pearl Harbor, Coral Sea, Midway and Santa Cruz Islands, helping sink the U.S. carriers Yorktown, Lexington and Hornet. SHIP KEY HEAVILY DAMAGED MODERATELY DAMAGED NOT DAMAGED SUNK U.S. aircraft carriers were the prime targets of the attack. If the Japanese could destroy them, it would set back the American war effort by years. But the USS Enterprise and USS Lexington were not at their moorings, both away on missions in the central Pacific. The missing carriers prevented the Japanese from delivering a more devastating PEARL blow at Pearl Harbor. Destroyers clustered in harbor were not hit during the attack. CITY O DETROIT RALEIGH UTAH Present day USS Arizona museum FORD and Bowfin ISLAND sub. USS Nevada was the only battleship to get under way during the attack. Although badly damaged, it was leaving the harbor to engage the enemy but was ordered to run aground at Hospital Point to avoid blocking the harbor ATTLESHIP ROW DETAILED BELOW OIL TANK FARM PEARL HARBOR HAVAL AIR STATION CALIFORNIA NEW ORLEANS SAN FRANCISCO HELENA SEAPLANE OGLALA SUB BASE BASE PENNSYLVANIA SHAW entrance when it sank. 0OWNES, CASSIN NAVAL SHIPYARD HOSPITAL DRY DOCKS The Japanese did not destroy the large fuel storaqge facilities around the shipyard. It would have been the target of a third attack wave, but they were never launched. OIL TANK FARM COAL DOCKS Hickam Field, home to U.S. bombers, was pounded by the Japanese, who destroyed more than half of the planes on the ground. Three of five large hangars were destroyed and casualties were high as many personnel took refuge in the hangars. During the raid, 12 unarmed B-17 bombers arrived from California. Eight of them managed to land at Hickam, AICHI D3A "VAL" DIVE BOMBER The Val was the primary dive bomber for the Japanese Navy during the war, participating in almost all air battles and responsible for sinking more Allied warships than any other aircraft. The D3A could carry one 550 Ib. bomb and two 130 lb. bombs. Early in the war, the two-man crews were hitting a remarkable 80 percent of their targets. HICKAM FIELD The USS Ward encountered a Japanese mini-sub about 3 miles off of Pearl Harbor the morning of the attack. It sunk the sub and fired the first U.S. shots of the Pacific war. WHAT HAPPENED ON USS ARIZONA CURTISS P-40 WARHAWK Despite the overwhelming enemy numbers, a few U.S. P-40 and P-36 fighter planes got airborne. At the time, the P-40s were considered the best fighter in the U.S. arsenal, gaining notoriety as the plane used by the Flying Tigers over China. Although not as nimble as the Zero, the P40s were tougher and were able to shoot down about 10 enemy planes. BATTLESHIP ROW NEVADA The USS Arizona was one of the first ships hit that morning, shortly before 8 a.m. Within nine minutes it had exploded and sunk, killing 1,177 crew. The ship was attacked by 10 modified "Kate" bombers, each carrying 16-inch armor- piercing shells with 1,760 pounds of explosives. ARIZONA 2 The second bomb hit No, 4 turret and started a fire below deck. Due to a lack of water pressure, the crew battled the TENNESSEE The first of four bombs struck the boat deck and did limited damage. VESTAL MARYLAND WEST VIRGINIA fire with hand fire extinguishers. OKLAHOMA During the raid, almost 50 torpedoes and more than 100 bombs rained down on Pearl Harbor. The Kate torpedo bomber was effective at striking the American battleships - the Japanese showed impressive accuracy with their munitions, with bombs often landing precisely on target. With no carriers in port, the attack was focused on the battleships and the dry dock areas. ..... ..... ..... ........ Several eyewitnesses said they saw a torpedo heading for the stern, but there has been no evidence discovered that the ship was hit by a torpedo. Some suggest that a mini-sub fired at the ship, but the Navy maintains it was sunk by only bombs. The third bomb hit near the rear port-side 5-inch gun and did limited damage. MITSUBISHI A6M ZERO "ZEKE" The best carrier-based fighter in the world, it gained a legendary reputation as a dogfighter and regularly outperformed Allied fighters. It had excellent maneuverability and a very long range. Its weaknesses were a lack of protective armor for the pilot and relatively small firepower. a The fourth bomb penetrated the deck near No. 2 turret. The explosion likely ignited a small magazine of black powder, and seven seconds later the main The blast sent burning fuel oil over the surrounding water and ships. Dozens of sailors died in the water which burned for two days. magazines detonated in a cataclysmic explosion, blowing out the front of the ship and causing the conning tower to collapse. HOW THE BATTLESHIPS FARED USS Maryland next to capsized Oklahoma. USS Nevada beached and burning. USS Arizona three days after the attack. USS West Virginia sinking. Rescue teams work on USS Oklahoma. USS NEVADA USS WEST USS UTAH CALIFORNIA SUNK, BUT RAISED Hit by two torpedoes and two bomb near misses. With massive flooding, she settled into the TENNESSEE DAMAGED Two bomb hits BEACHED, BUT RAISED Struck by torpedoes and bombs, it was still one bomb, which did able to get under way while shooting down three enemy planes before its hull ruptured. Refloated and OKLAHOMA SUNK, BUT RAISED Capsized at its berth within 10 minutes after receiving at least three hits by mud with 100 crew torpedoes. It was raised in 1944, but sold for scrap and lost at sea in 1947. PENNSYLVANIA DAMAGED In Two bomb hits on dry dock during the forward part of attack, it was not hit by torpedoes. Hit by ARIZONA SUNK Hit by several armor- MARYLAND DAMAGED VIRGINIA SUNK Converted from a battleship to a target ship, it was struck early in piercing bombs, it the attack. It remains at its resting place in Pearl Harbor, a less-known memorial to the men that died inside her hull. SUNK, BUT RAISED Hit by destroyed its main gun turrets. It was showered by debris and suffered serious bombs and limited damage. Many sailors were of its antiaircraft killed by debris from destroyers that were bombed nearby. the hull caused flooding but no critical damage. It brought most torpedoes - perhaps one from a mini-sub, it was engulfed by burning oil for 30 hours. After being refloated, it was discovered that crew had lived for 16 refloated in March days in the wreck before dying. sank within minutes, Of the 1,177 crew lost, more than 1,0000 died almost instantly in a massive damage aft due to the extreme heat from USS Arizona's burning fuel oil. guns into action, downing at least one enemy plane. dead and 62 wounded. It was explosion, with their remains still returned to 1942. service. in the hull. THE COUNT VISITING USS Arizona, 608-feet long Stern SHIPS SUNK/ PEARL HARBOR ATTRACTIONS Pearl Harbor offers four significant attractions. The KILLED IN AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT DESTROYED DAMAGED SEVERELY DAMAGED ACTION 2,403 164 159 18 visitor centers and museums VAVAAANAVA No. 3 for the. Arizona Memorial and INCLUDES 68 CIVILIANS, MOSTLY IN HONOLULU BY FRIENDLY FIRE Dock for the Bowfin submarine are next tour to each other, A shuttle bus shuttle takes s visitors from the USS Arizona/Bowfin area to 64 29 74 Island to tour the USS Missouri 55 IN AIRCRAFT 9 IN MINI-SUBS 1 CAPTURED battleship and the Pacific Aviation Museum. Self-guided audio tours offer insights. Between the Arizona and Remains of USS Mooring Note: Counts vary, these figures are from U.S. military sources. No. 2 turret quay Arizona Memori Bowfin museums is a 1940s canteen-style cafe with several food stalls, al Sources: U.S. Navy, National Park Service, U.S. Army's Center of Military History: PHOTOS: U.S. Navy, National Archives, NPS USS ARIZONA MEMORIAL AND USS BOWFIN SUB AND MUSEUM Very popular, so arrive MUSEUM Submarine and Resting in the midst of where early or expect a long wait. Extensive exhibit galleries. Tours can sell out by noon. FREE USS MISSOURI BATTLESHIP PACIFIC AVIATION MUSEUM Graphic and text by SCOTT M. BROWN sbrown@ocregister.com The Register Opened in 2006. More than 20 museum detail wartime the war began, you can tour the historical aircraft are housed in hangars that show the scars of the 1941 attack. Also offers flight simulators and cafe. $20/adult life in the "silent service." place where the war officially $10/adult ended in Tokyo bay. $20/adult

Pearl Harbor Attack

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It’s been 70 years since the Japanese attack on Dec. 7, 1941, “the day that will live in infamy,” in the words of President Franklin Roosevelt, thrust the United States into World War II. Here's...

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