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A History of Addiction Treatment in the US

AMERICA'S WAR ON DRUGS: A HISTORY OF ADDICTION TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES Drug and alcohol treatment has evolved greatly over the last four centuries; from Native American sobriety circles to the endorsement of cocaine by Sigmund Freud, the United States has been engulfed in a long-standing battle with addiction. Below you'll find anything and everything you need to know about the history of addiction treatment in the Altered States of America. 1700's 1700'S TO EARLY 1800's • The first alcoholic mutual aid societies, or sobriety "circles," are formed within various Native American tribes. Later, some will evolve into abstinence-based temperance organizations. 1774 • The first American essay on alcoholism, Anthony Benezet's Mighty Destroyer Displayed, is published. 1784 • American founding father Dr. Benjamin Rush publishes Inquiry into the Effects of Ardent Spirits on the Human Mind and Body. This document is generally recognized as the beginning of the American temperance movement. Dr. Benjamin Rush 1800's 1810 • Rush calls for creation of a "sober house" to care for alcoholics. AN ADDRES. 1830 • Dr. Samuel Woodward proposes "asylums for the inebriated." SPRINGFIELD WISHINGTONIAN TEMPERANCE SOCIETY, 1840 • The Washingtonian Society, organized by and for "confirmed alcoholics," is formed; will grow to have 600,000 members. AT THE ON NE ra aab DAY or rEUARY, 104 1840-1845 • The first "homes for the inebriate" open in Boston, inspiring the creation of the Godwin Society and other alcoholic mutual aid societies. • 24,000 pounds of Opium are brought into the US through New England. • The sale of liquor is proclaimed illegal in New York, only to be repealed two years later. • The Templars of Honor and Temperance-a non-drinking fraternity-is formed. 1864 • The New York State Inebriate Asylum, the first in the country, opens in Binghamton, NY. 1867 • The Martha Washington Home in Chicago is the first treatment center in America specifically for alcoholic women. THE NEW YOK STATE INEBATE ANYLEM. • Edgar Allen Poe dies from complications of alcoholism. • Fitz Hugh Ludlow, author of The Hasheesh Eater (1857), sends a letter to Harpers' magazine suggesting that the easiest way to break an opium habit is to go cold turkey. 1879 • Dr. Leslie Keeley announces, "Drunkenness is a disease and I can cure it." Keeley 34years ure FOR In o Ov Operation CURED DRUNKENNESS MORPHINE • Over 120 Keeley Institutes open across the US, as first franchised for-profit addiction treatment institutes in the country. OPIUM AND OTHER DRUG USING CONPIDENTIAL coRRESPONt OLICITLD TILE KEELEY INSTITETE 20 Main Street. Jarkville. Fa. E ONLY KEELEY INSTITUTE IN FLORIDA 1880's • Sigmund Freud and many other American physicians recommend cocaine as an effective treatment for alcoholism and morphine addiction. Sigmund Freud 1891-1892 • The Keeley League, a spinoff of Keeley Institute, urges lawmakers to sentence medical treatment for alcoholics rather than jail time. • Abuse of chloral hydrate (one of the earliest produced sedatives) is documented in the Quarterly Joumal of Inebriety, January 1880. 1900's 1900 • As “alcoholic homes" close, poor alcoholics end up in "drunk tanks" and wards of public hospitals or asylums. The well-to-do continue to seek treatment at discrete private clinics. 1901 • The Charles B. Towns Hospital for Drug and ARLES B. TOWNS HOSPI Alcoholic Addictions opens in New York City, as a "drying out" hospital, catering to affluent alcoholics and drug addicts. 293 Central Park West New York, New Yor or ALCOHOLISM and DRUG ADDICT Ths innitution la geciallaed ia alictiens for e yean. Ia method e tratart THE JOURNALAMAiia The Handeck ef T trm the A MA Pre; and ia other iee li The t a mpalar hogital pn, nd pros Duial Thery wih e and sther ldi e Operated tution. Piynidans are not only iavitel acompty and tay with thrir patient 1914 • The Harrison Tax Act puts regulations on opiates and cocaine. 1919-1924 • Morphine maintenance clinics open in 44 cities, operated by public health departments or police departments. Eventually, federal action closes them down and narcotic addiction treatment all but disappears in the US. MORPHIA • The Senate adopts a resolution forbidding American traders from selling opium and alcohol to "aboriginal tribes and uncivilized races." • Cigarettes are illegal in 14 states. 1935 • Shadel Sanatorium opens, introducing aversive conditioning as a viable treatment for alcohol addiction The US Public Health Prison Hospital opens in Lexington, KY, as the government's first intentional involvement in addiction treatment. Bill W. and Dr. Bob S. • Bill W. and Dr. Bob S. form Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). alcoholics Cnonymous 1939 • The book Alcoholics Anonymous is published. • The 18th Amendment (Prohibition) is ratified, causing the proliferation of organized crime. • Marijuana becomes a popular replacement for booze. • Sigmund Freud, who treated many cocaine addicts in his career while extolling its virtues at the same time, dies. Marijuana 1940 • The Quarterly Joumal of Studies on Alcohol is published. 1940-1945 • Successful AA members are employed at several major industrial companies, forming the first modern alcoholism programs and modern employee assistance programs (EAPS). 1940-1945 • The National Committee for Education on Alcoholism (NCEA) is founded around the follow 1 Alcoholism is a disease 2 The alcoholic, therefore, is a sick person 3 The alcoholic can be helped 4 The alcoholic is worth helping 5 Alcoholism is our No. 4 public health problem, and our public responsibility • The committee calls for a five-step approach to be achieved by NCEA affiliates: 1 Launch local public education campaigns on alcoholism 2 Encourage hospitals to admit alcoholics for Detox 3 Establish local alcohol information centers 4 Establish local alcoholism clinics 5 Establish "rest centers" for long-term care 1944-1950 • The first state commissions on alcoholism are founded in support of community education and treatment at the local level. • Col. J.M. Phalen, a military surgeon, writes an editorial The Marijuana Bugaboo stating: "The smoking of...cannabis sativa is no more harmful than the smoking of tobacco. It is hoped that no witch hunt will be instituted in the military service over a problem that does not exist." • The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence is founded as an offshoot of Alcoholics Anonymous. 1947 • Addicts Anonymous is formed in Lexington, KY. 1948-1950 • The "Minnesota Model" of chemical dependency treatment is formed by three anti-addiction centers: Pioneer House, Hazelden and Willmar State Hospital. • A variety of drugs are tested and used to treat alcoholism, including Disulfram (Antabuse), barbiturates, amphetamines (Benzedrine) and even LSD. 1950 • AA adopts its twelve traditions. MEDICAL • The National Institute of Mental Health establishes its alcoholism division. • The American Medical Association (AMA) forms a special committee to advance the possibilities of solving alcoholism problems. • Philosopher and economist Ludwig von Mises argues against any laws prohibiting the use of opium and morphine. His argument: "If the government is willing to determine what are 'bad drugs,' what's next? Banning bad books? Bad plays? Art? Music? The mischief done by bad ideologies, surely, is much more pernicious...than that done by narcotic drugs." EARLY 1950's • AA membership surpasses 90,000. This is partly due to an increase in movies about alcoholics. 1950's • Forming of the Association of Halfway House Alcoholism Programs of North America. RECOVERY 1951 • Lois W. and Anne B. start the organization that eventually becomes Al-Anon Family Groups. 1952 • The AMA first defines alcoholism as a disease. • R. Brinkley Smithers establishes the "Christopher D. Smithers Foundation," a charitable organization focusing on alcohol education and treatment. 1954 • The New York City Medical Society on Alcoholism, now known as the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), is formed. • The United Nations estimates that the number of marijuana users worldwide is approx. 200,000,000. • The National Prohibition Party is formed. • Alcohol and Crime, one of the first studies of its kind, is published. 1956 • The AMA recognizes alcoholics as legitimate patients. PART ARANS 1957 • The Veteran's Health Administration (VHA) forms its first alcoholism INITED STATES OF AMERICA treatment units. 1958 • Synanon – the first addiction treatment center founded by an addict – opens, becoming the model for many similar treatment centers through the 1970's. 1961 • The American Bar Association and American Medical Association (ABA/AMA) calls for community-based treatment programs. 1963 • The American Public Health Association recognizes alcoholism as a treatable illness. • Artist Jackson Pollock dies in a single-car crash; he was driving drunk. • The drug Supervisory Body of the UN reports that morphine use increased by 10% worldwide and methadone use increased Jackson Pollock by 50% in just two years. • The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is signed as an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of narcotic drugs, excluding medical purposes. • Troops begin preparing for Vietnam; this will ultimately create more drug addicts than the Armed Forces ever imagined. 1963 - 1966 • The Tobacco industry announces, "Tobacco products pass across sales counters more frequently than anything else - except money." • Federal funding to treat alcoholism increases throughout the 1960's. 1964 • Introduction of Methadone blockade therapy for the treatment of narcotic addiction. 1964 - 1975 • The insurance industry begins to reimburse alcoholism treatment. 1966 • President Johnson appoints the first National Advisory Committee on Alcoholism. • The Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act (NARA) calls for increased federal involvement in supporting local addiction treatment. • William Benitez forms Narconon while serving time for drug possession in Arizona State Prison. President Lyndon Johnson 1967 - 1971 • The U.S. Armed Forces initiate alcoholism and drug counseling programs. • Surgeon General Leonidas Terry reports that smoking may be hazardous to your health. SURGEON GENERAL'S W. Smoking Causes Lung C. Heart Disease, Emphyšsem May Complicate Pregna • The New York Narcotics Addiction Control Program is enacted, allowing judges to commit addicts for compulsory treatment. Leonidas Terry 1972 • The Food and Drug Administration approves use of methadone for treating heroin addiction. • The Drug Abuse Treatment Act (DATA) is passed; TASC (Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime) is created by DATA to screen addicts in the criminal justice system get them treatment. MID 1970's • Alcohol and drug treatment programs become integrated for the first time, locally and nationally. 1975 • Publishing of the Federal White Paper on Drug Abuse, recommending that the federal government expand federal support for addiction treatment. 1978 • Former First Lady, Betty Ford, speaks to the nation about entering recovery for addiction to alcohol and other drugs. • President Nixon calls drug abuse the nation's "Public Enemy #1." Betty Ford President Richard Nixon 67% 1979 • A Gallup poll reports that 67% of Americans believe drug • dealers should receive life sentences with no possibility of parole. EMADD 1980 • Mothers Against Drunk Driving, a powerful grassroots advocacy group, is formed. Nancy 1981 • Launching of Nancy Reagan's "Just Say No" campaign, which combined with the federal government's "zero tolerance" campaign, reduces federal support for drug treatment. Reagan Just • Incarcerations of addicts flood the prisons. say no 1982 • The Betty Ford Clinic opens. • Cocaine Anonymous is founded. 1983 • California offers the first certification exam for addiction medicine. • The National Association for Children of Alcoholics is founded. • The Columbian Medellin mafia begins to do business in the United States. Using “legitimate" businesses such as banking and imports as a cover, they form gangs in low-income neighborhoods, terrorize entire urban areas and encourage the increase in teen drug use. DARE • The Coast Guard seizes over $1 billion in drugs in a sting of Columbian dealers called "Operations Grouper". • Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) is launched. 1984 • The National Minimum Drinking Age Act raises the minimum drinking age in the U.S. to 21, under the threat of losing federal funding for highways. 1985 • Crack cocaine appears for the first time. Crack Cocaine 1985 - 1986 • Forming of the Secular Organization for Sobriety and Rational Recovery, offering recovery help and support without a heavy-handed religious message of other organizations. 1985 - 1990 • Addiction treatment expands toward "special populations" including the elderly, the LGBT community and minorities. • The Crime Control Act sets a determinate sentencing system for drug offenses. • Daily marijuana use by high school students drops by one percentage point. 1990 • Methamphetamine use among high school athletes first begins to make an impression. • NCA changes its name to National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence. Crystal Meth View Go Boskmarks Optiota Directar 1990's • The internet arrives and online recovery support groups Wekcome wh Hentwha's Coo Gutione Hel Search and services become commonplace. Yahoo - A Guide to WWW Y Top l Seoreh Ma Add Melp 1991 • The American Society of Addiction Medicine publishes • Art(460) e Husiness(6420) • Computers(260o9 • Economy(743) Ednoatiadln the ASAM Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders. It recommends a "levels of care" system rather than a single plan of action applied indiscriminately to all patients. 1992 - 1997 • Drug use among teenagers spikes. 1992 • The Americans with Disabilities Acts extends job protection (except in safety-sensitive positions) to former alcoholics and recovering drug addicts. • A national household survey reveals that over 34% of all Americans had tried illicit drugs at least once. • Washington, D.C. Mayor Marion Barry is arrested in a drug sting. • 8.1% of all high school sophomores are smoking marijuana on a regular basis; this statistic will increase to 20.5% by 2001. Marion Berry • Cocaine use over this period for high schoolers will remain fairly static. 1995 • The FDA approves the use of naltrexone to treat alcoholism. 2000's 2000 • The Journal of the American Medical Association proposes that addiction should be treated as a chronic medical illness. 2005 • Annual use of OxyContin® by teenagers rises from 4.0% in OyContir a 2002 to 5.5%. Oxy Contin 2010 • Four of the largest drug busts in history occur, leading to: 439 arrests and the confiscation of 1,267 pounds of methamphetamines, close to 200,000 pounds of marijuana, 5,000 pounds of cocaine and 1,400 pounds of heroin, totaling a street value of $318 million. 2011 - 2012 • US Politicians and citizens urge lawmakers to enforce drug testing before welfare recipients receive government assistance. 2011 - 2012 • British professor of neuropsychopharmacology, David Nutt, says that the US bans on drugs like ecstasy, mushrooms and LSD have hindered neurological research and progression of medicine. • US data statistics suggest that “...a convicted criminal who successfully completes a court-imposed treatment regimen is nearly 60 percent less likely to return to crime than those who go untreated." • The New Jersey Senate passes a bill that requires non-violent drug offenders to undergo treatment instead of serving jail time. BROUGHT TO YOU BY Drug-Rehab.org SOURCES: White, W. "Slaying the Dragon: The History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America". Bloomington, IL: Chestnut Health Systems, 1998. http://www.addiction2.com/marijuana/history-of-marijuana-cannabis-timeline.html http://wiki.monticello.org/mediawiki/index.php/Hemp http://books.google.com/books?id=BuzNzm- xolec&pg=PP1&dq=Alcohol+and+Temperance+in+Modem+History:+An+Intemational+Encyclopedia# V=onepage&q=8f=false>. http://www.trivia-library.com/a/history-of-legal-and-illegal-drugs-from-1800-to-1850-ad.htm http://www.eapoe.org/geninfo/poealchl.htm http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/history/1870/easychair.htm http://www.lectlaw.com/files/drgo9.htm http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/history/1980-1985.html http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.govpublications/factsht/druguse/ http://www.justice.gov/dea/concem/oxycontin.html http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/cocaine/cocaine.shtml http://www.justice.gov/dea/concem/marijuana.html http://www.legendsofamerica.com/WE-JJWebb.htmb. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/722353/Dianetics-The-Modern-Science-of-Mental-Health http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/bulletin/bulletin_1957-01-01_1_page006.html>. http://www.nytimes.com/1987/02/24/us/high-school-marijuana-use-still-declining-us-survey-shows.html http://www.foxnews.com/health/2012/05/17/data-suggests-drug-treatment-can-lower-us-crime/ ASSOCL SERVICE AMERICA'S WAR ON DRUGS: A HISTORY OF ADDICTION TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES Drug and alcohol treatment has evolved greatly over the last four centuries; from Native American sobriety circles to the endorsement of cocaine by Sigmund Freud, the United States has been engulfed in a long-standing battle with addiction. Below you'll find anything and everything you need to know about the history of addiction treatment in the Altered States of America. 1700's 1700'S TO EARLY 1800's • The first alcoholic mutual aid societies, or sobriety "circles," are formed within various Native American tribes. Later, some will evolve into abstinence-based temperance organizations. 1774 • The first American essay on alcoholism, Anthony Benezet's Mighty Destroyer Displayed, is published. 1784 • American founding father Dr. Benjamin Rush publishes Inquiry into the Effects of Ardent Spirits on the Human Mind and Body. This document is generally recognized as the beginning of the American temperance movement. Dr. Benjamin Rush 1800's 1810 • Rush calls for creation of a "sober house" to care for alcoholics. AN ADDRES. 1830 • Dr. Samuel Woodward proposes "asylums for the inebriated." SPRINGFIELD WISHINGTONIAN TEMPERANCE SOCIETY, 1840 • The Washingtonian Society, organized by and for "confirmed alcoholics," is formed; will grow to have 600,000 members. AT THE ON NE ra aab DAY or rEUARY, 104 1840-1845 • The first "homes for the inebriate" open in Boston, inspiring the creation of the Godwin Society and other alcoholic mutual aid societies. • 24,000 pounds of Opium are brought into the US through New England. • The sale of liquor is proclaimed illegal in New York, only to be repealed two years later. • The Templars of Honor and Temperance-a non-drinking fraternity-is formed. 1864 • The New York State Inebriate Asylum, the first in the country, opens in Binghamton, NY. 1867 • The Martha Washington Home in Chicago is the first treatment center in America specifically for alcoholic women. THE NEW YOK STATE INEBATE ANYLEM. • Edgar Allen Poe dies from complications of alcoholism. • Fitz Hugh Ludlow, author of The Hasheesh Eater (1857), sends a letter to Harpers' magazine suggesting that the easiest way to break an opium habit is to go cold turkey. 1879 • Dr. Leslie Keeley announces, "Drunkenness is a disease and I can cure it." Keeley 34years ure FOR In o Ov Operation CURED DRUNKENNESS MORPHINE • Over 120 Keeley Institutes open across the US, as first franchised for-profit addiction treatment institutes in the country. OPIUM AND OTHER DRUG USING CONPIDENTIAL coRRESPONt OLICITLD TILE KEELEY INSTITETE 20 Main Street. Jarkville. Fa. E ONLY KEELEY INSTITUTE IN FLORIDA 1880's • Sigmund Freud and many other American physicians recommend cocaine as an effective treatment for alcoholism and morphine addiction. Sigmund Freud 1891-1892 • The Keeley League, a spinoff of Keeley Institute, urges lawmakers to sentence medical treatment for alcoholics rather than jail time. • Abuse of chloral hydrate (one of the earliest produced sedatives) is documented in the Quarterly Joumal of Inebriety, January 1880. 1900's 1900 • As “alcoholic homes" close, poor alcoholics end up in "drunk tanks" and wards of public hospitals or asylums. The well-to-do continue to seek treatment at discrete private clinics. 1901 • The Charles B. Towns Hospital for Drug and ARLES B. TOWNS HOSPI Alcoholic Addictions opens in New York City, as a "drying out" hospital, catering to affluent alcoholics and drug addicts. 293 Central Park West New York, New Yor or ALCOHOLISM and DRUG ADDICT Ths innitution la geciallaed ia alictiens for e yean. Ia method e tratart THE JOURNALAMAiia The Handeck ef T trm the A MA Pre; and ia other iee li The t a mpalar hogital pn, nd pros Duial Thery wih e and sther ldi e Operated tution. Piynidans are not only iavitel acompty and tay with thrir patient 1914 • The Harrison Tax Act puts regulations on opiates and cocaine. 1919-1924 • Morphine maintenance clinics open in 44 cities, operated by public health departments or police departments. Eventually, federal action closes them down and narcotic addiction treatment all but disappears in the US. MORPHIA • The Senate adopts a resolution forbidding American traders from selling opium and alcohol to "aboriginal tribes and uncivilized races." • Cigarettes are illegal in 14 states. 1935 • Shadel Sanatorium opens, introducing aversive conditioning as a viable treatment for alcohol addiction The US Public Health Prison Hospital opens in Lexington, KY, as the government's first intentional involvement in addiction treatment. Bill W. and Dr. Bob S. • Bill W. and Dr. Bob S. form Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). alcoholics Cnonymous 1939 • The book Alcoholics Anonymous is published. • The 18th Amendment (Prohibition) is ratified, causing the proliferation of organized crime. • Marijuana becomes a popular replacement for booze. • Sigmund Freud, who treated many cocaine addicts in his career while extolling its virtues at the same time, dies. Marijuana 1940 • The Quarterly Joumal of Studies on Alcohol is published. 1940-1945 • Successful AA members are employed at several major industrial companies, forming the first modern alcoholism programs and modern employee assistance programs (EAPS). 1940-1945 • The National Committee for Education on Alcoholism (NCEA) is founded around the follow 1 Alcoholism is a disease 2 The alcoholic, therefore, is a sick person 3 The alcoholic can be helped 4 The alcoholic is worth helping 5 Alcoholism is our No. 4 public health problem, and our public responsibility • The committee calls for a five-step approach to be achieved by NCEA affiliates: 1 Launch local public education campaigns on alcoholism 2 Encourage hospitals to admit alcoholics for Detox 3 Establish local alcohol information centers 4 Establish local alcoholism clinics 5 Establish "rest centers" for long-term care 1944-1950 • The first state commissions on alcoholism are founded in support of community education and treatment at the local level. • Col. J.M. Phalen, a military surgeon, writes an editorial The Marijuana Bugaboo stating: "The smoking of...cannabis sativa is no more harmful than the smoking of tobacco. It is hoped that no witch hunt will be instituted in the military service over a problem that does not exist." • The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence is founded as an offshoot of Alcoholics Anonymous. 1947 • Addicts Anonymous is formed in Lexington, KY. 1948-1950 • The "Minnesota Model" of chemical dependency treatment is formed by three anti-addiction centers: Pioneer House, Hazelden and Willmar State Hospital. • A variety of drugs are tested and used to treat alcoholism, including Disulfram (Antabuse), barbiturates, amphetamines (Benzedrine) and even LSD. 1950 • AA adopts its twelve traditions. MEDICAL • The National Institute of Mental Health establishes its alcoholism division. • The American Medical Association (AMA) forms a special committee to advance the possibilities of solving alcoholism problems. • Philosopher and economist Ludwig von Mises argues against any laws prohibiting the use of opium and morphine. His argument: "If the government is willing to determine what are 'bad drugs,' what's next? Banning bad books? Bad plays? Art? Music? The mischief done by bad ideologies, surely, is much more pernicious...than that done by narcotic drugs." EARLY 1950's • AA membership surpasses 90,000. This is partly due to an increase in movies about alcoholics. 1950's • Forming of the Association of Halfway House Alcoholism Programs of North America. RECOVERY 1951 • Lois W. and Anne B. start the organization that eventually becomes Al-Anon Family Groups. 1952 • The AMA first defines alcoholism as a disease. • R. Brinkley Smithers establishes the "Christopher D. Smithers Foundation," a charitable organization focusing on alcohol education and treatment. 1954 • The New York City Medical Society on Alcoholism, now known as the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), is formed. • The United Nations estimates that the number of marijuana users worldwide is approx. 200,000,000. • The National Prohibition Party is formed. • Alcohol and Crime, one of the first studies of its kind, is published. 1956 • The AMA recognizes alcoholics as legitimate patients. PART ARANS 1957 • The Veteran's Health Administration (VHA) forms its first alcoholism INITED STATES OF AMERICA treatment units. 1958 • Synanon – the first addiction treatment center founded by an addict – opens, becoming the model for many similar treatment centers through the 1970's. 1961 • The American Bar Association and American Medical Association (ABA/AMA) calls for community-based treatment programs. 1963 • The American Public Health Association recognizes alcoholism as a treatable illness. • Artist Jackson Pollock dies in a single-car crash; he was driving drunk. • The drug Supervisory Body of the UN reports that morphine use increased by 10% worldwide and methadone use increased Jackson Pollock by 50% in just two years. • The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is signed as an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of narcotic drugs, excluding medical purposes. • Troops begin preparing for Vietnam; this will ultimately create more drug addicts than the Armed Forces ever imagined. 1963 - 1966 • The Tobacco industry announces, "Tobacco products pass across sales counters more frequently than anything else - except money." • Federal funding to treat alcoholism increases throughout the 1960's. 1964 • Introduction of Methadone blockade therapy for the treatment of narcotic addiction. 1964 - 1975 • The insurance industry begins to reimburse alcoholism treatment. 1966 • President Johnson appoints the first National Advisory Committee on Alcoholism. • The Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act (NARA) calls for increased federal involvement in supporting local addiction treatment. • William Benitez forms Narconon while serving time for drug possession in Arizona State Prison. President Lyndon Johnson 1967 - 1971 • The U.S. Armed Forces initiate alcoholism and drug counseling programs. • Surgeon General Leonidas Terry reports that smoking may be hazardous to your health. SURGEON GENERAL'S W. Smoking Causes Lung C. Heart Disease, Emphyšsem May Complicate Pregna • The New York Narcotics Addiction Control Program is enacted, allowing judges to commit addicts for compulsory treatment. Leonidas Terry 1972 • The Food and Drug Administration approves use of methadone for treating heroin addiction. • The Drug Abuse Treatment Act (DATA) is passed; TASC (Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime) is created by DATA to screen addicts in the criminal justice system get them treatment. MID 1970's • Alcohol and drug treatment programs become integrated for the first time, locally and nationally. 1975 • Publishing of the Federal White Paper on Drug Abuse, recommending that the federal government expand federal support for addiction treatment. 1978 • Former First Lady, Betty Ford, speaks to the nation about entering recovery for addiction to alcohol and other drugs. • President Nixon calls drug abuse the nation's "Public Enemy #1." Betty Ford President Richard Nixon 67% 1979 • A Gallup poll reports that 67% of Americans believe drug • dealers should receive life sentences with no possibility of parole. EMADD 1980 • Mothers Against Drunk Driving, a powerful grassroots advocacy group, is formed. Nancy 1981 • Launching of Nancy Reagan's "Just Say No" campaign, which combined with the federal government's "zero tolerance" campaign, reduces federal support for drug treatment. Reagan Just • Incarcerations of addicts flood the prisons. say no 1982 • The Betty Ford Clinic opens. • Cocaine Anonymous is founded. 1983 • California offers the first certification exam for addiction medicine. • The National Association for Children of Alcoholics is founded. • The Columbian Medellin mafia begins to do business in the United States. Using “legitimate" businesses such as banking and imports as a cover, they form gangs in low-income neighborhoods, terrorize entire urban areas and encourage the increase in teen drug use. DARE • The Coast Guard seizes over $1 billion in drugs in a sting of Columbian dealers called "Operations Grouper". • Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) is launched. 1984 • The National Minimum Drinking Age Act raises the minimum drinking age in the U.S. to 21, under the threat of losing federal funding for highways. 1985 • Crack cocaine appears for the first time. Crack Cocaine 1985 - 1986 • Forming of the Secular Organization for Sobriety and Rational Recovery, offering recovery help and support without a heavy-handed religious message of other organizations. 1985 - 1990 • Addiction treatment expands toward "special populations" including the elderly, the LGBT community and minorities. • The Crime Control Act sets a determinate sentencing system for drug offenses. • Daily marijuana use by high school students drops by one percentage point. 1990 • Methamphetamine use among high school athletes first begins to make an impression. • NCA changes its name to National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence. Crystal Meth View Go Boskmarks Optiota Directar 1990's • The internet arrives and online recovery support groups Wekcome wh Hentwha's Coo Gutione Hel Search and services become commonplace. Yahoo - A Guide to WWW Y Top l Seoreh Ma Add Melp 1991 • The American Society of Addiction Medicine publishes • Art(460) e Husiness(6420) • Computers(260o9 • Economy(743) Ednoatiadln the ASAM Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders. It recommends a "levels of care" system rather than a single plan of action applied indiscriminately to all patients. 1992 - 1997 • Drug use among teenagers spikes. 1992 • The Americans with Disabilities Acts extends job protection (except in safety-sensitive positions) to former alcoholics and recovering drug addicts. • A national household survey reveals that over 34% of all Americans had tried illicit drugs at least once. • Washington, D.C. Mayor Marion Barry is arrested in a drug sting. • 8.1% of all high school sophomores are smoking marijuana on a regular basis; this statistic will increase to 20.5% by 2001. Marion Berry • Cocaine use over this period for high schoolers will remain fairly static. 1995 • The FDA approves the use of naltrexone to treat alcoholism. 2000's 2000 • The Journal of the American Medical Association proposes that addiction should be treated as a chronic medical illness. 2005 • Annual use of OxyContin® by teenagers rises from 4.0% in OyContir a 2002 to 5.5%. Oxy Contin 2010 • Four of the largest drug busts in history occur, leading to: 439 arrests and the confiscation of 1,267 pounds of methamphetamines, close to 200,000 pounds of marijuana, 5,000 pounds of cocaine and 1,400 pounds of heroin, totaling a street value of $318 million. 2011 - 2012 • US Politicians and citizens urge lawmakers to enforce drug testing before welfare recipients receive government assistance. 2011 - 2012 • British professor of neuropsychopharmacology, David Nutt, says that the US bans on drugs like ecstasy, mushrooms and LSD have hindered neurological research and progression of medicine. • US data statistics suggest that “...a convicted criminal who successfully completes a court-imposed treatment regimen is nearly 60 percent less likely to return to crime than those who go untreated." • The New Jersey Senate passes a bill that requires non-violent drug offenders to undergo treatment instead of serving jail time. BROUGHT TO YOU BY Drug-Rehab.org SOURCES: White, W. "Slaying the Dragon: The History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America". Bloomington, IL: Chestnut Health Systems, 1998. http://www.addiction2.com/marijuana/history-of-marijuana-cannabis-timeline.html http://wiki.monticello.org/mediawiki/index.php/Hemp http://books.google.com/books?id=BuzNzm- xolec&pg=PP1&dq=Alcohol+and+Temperance+in+Modem+History:+An+Intemational+Encyclopedia# V=onepage&q=8f=false>. http://www.trivia-library.com/a/history-of-legal-and-illegal-drugs-from-1800-to-1850-ad.htm http://www.eapoe.org/geninfo/poealchl.htm http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/history/1870/easychair.htm http://www.lectlaw.com/files/drgo9.htm http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/history/1980-1985.html http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.govpublications/factsht/druguse/ http://www.justice.gov/dea/concem/oxycontin.html http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/cocaine/cocaine.shtml http://www.justice.gov/dea/concem/marijuana.html http://www.legendsofamerica.com/WE-JJWebb.htmb. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/722353/Dianetics-The-Modern-Science-of-Mental-Health http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/bulletin/bulletin_1957-01-01_1_page006.html>. http://www.nytimes.com/1987/02/24/us/high-school-marijuana-use-still-declining-us-survey-shows.html http://www.foxnews.com/health/2012/05/17/data-suggests-drug-treatment-can-lower-us-crime/ ASSOCL SERVICE AMERICA'S WAR ON DRUGS: A HISTORY OF ADDICTION TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES Drug and alcohol treatment has evolved greatly over the last four centuries; from Native American sobriety circles to the endorsement of cocaine by Sigmund Freud, the United States has been engulfed in a long-standing battle with addiction. Below you'll find anything and everything you need to know about the history of addiction treatment in the Altered States of America. 1700's 1700'S TO EARLY 1800's • The first alcoholic mutual aid societies, or sobriety "circles," are formed within various Native American tribes. Later, some will evolve into abstinence-based temperance organizations. 1774 • The first American essay on alcoholism, Anthony Benezet's Mighty Destroyer Displayed, is published. 1784 • American founding father Dr. Benjamin Rush publishes Inquiry into the Effects of Ardent Spirits on the Human Mind and Body. This document is generally recognized as the beginning of the American temperance movement. Dr. Benjamin Rush 1800's 1810 • Rush calls for creation of a "sober house" to care for alcoholics. AN ADDRES. 1830 • Dr. Samuel Woodward proposes "asylums for the inebriated." SPRINGFIELD WISHINGTONIAN TEMPERANCE SOCIETY, 1840 • The Washingtonian Society, organized by and for "confirmed alcoholics," is formed; will grow to have 600,000 members. AT THE ON NE ra aab DAY or rEUARY, 104 1840-1845 • The first "homes for the inebriate" open in Boston, inspiring the creation of the Godwin Society and other alcoholic mutual aid societies. • 24,000 pounds of Opium are brought into the US through New England. • The sale of liquor is proclaimed illegal in New York, only to be repealed two years later. • The Templars of Honor and Temperance-a non-drinking fraternity-is formed. 1864 • The New York State Inebriate Asylum, the first in the country, opens in Binghamton, NY. 1867 • The Martha Washington Home in Chicago is the first treatment center in America specifically for alcoholic women. THE NEW YOK STATE INEBATE ANYLEM. • Edgar Allen Poe dies from complications of alcoholism. • Fitz Hugh Ludlow, author of The Hasheesh Eater (1857), sends a letter to Harpers' magazine suggesting that the easiest way to break an opium habit is to go cold turkey. 1879 • Dr. Leslie Keeley announces, "Drunkenness is a disease and I can cure it." Keeley 34years ure FOR In o Ov Operation CURED DRUNKENNESS MORPHINE • Over 120 Keeley Institutes open across the US, as first franchised for-profit addiction treatment institutes in the country. OPIUM AND OTHER DRUG USING CONPIDENTIAL coRRESPONt OLICITLD TILE KEELEY INSTITETE 20 Main Street. Jarkville. Fa. E ONLY KEELEY INSTITUTE IN FLORIDA 1880's • Sigmund Freud and many other American physicians recommend cocaine as an effective treatment for alcoholism and morphine addiction. Sigmund Freud 1891-1892 • The Keeley League, a spinoff of Keeley Institute, urges lawmakers to sentence medical treatment for alcoholics rather than jail time. • Abuse of chloral hydrate (one of the earliest produced sedatives) is documented in the Quarterly Joumal of Inebriety, January 1880. 1900's 1900 • As “alcoholic homes" close, poor alcoholics end up in "drunk tanks" and wards of public hospitals or asylums. The well-to-do continue to seek treatment at discrete private clinics. 1901 • The Charles B. Towns Hospital for Drug and ARLES B. TOWNS HOSPI Alcoholic Addictions opens in New York City, as a "drying out" hospital, catering to affluent alcoholics and drug addicts. 293 Central Park West New York, New Yor or ALCOHOLISM and DRUG ADDICT Ths innitution la geciallaed ia alictiens for e yean. Ia method e tratart THE JOURNALAMAiia The Handeck ef T trm the A MA Pre; and ia other iee li The t a mpalar hogital pn, nd pros Duial Thery wih e and sther ldi e Operated tution. Piynidans are not only iavitel acompty and tay with thrir patient 1914 • The Harrison Tax Act puts regulations on opiates and cocaine. 1919-1924 • Morphine maintenance clinics open in 44 cities, operated by public health departments or police departments. Eventually, federal action closes them down and narcotic addiction treatment all but disappears in the US. MORPHIA • The Senate adopts a resolution forbidding American traders from selling opium and alcohol to "aboriginal tribes and uncivilized races." • Cigarettes are illegal in 14 states. 1935 • Shadel Sanatorium opens, introducing aversive conditioning as a viable treatment for alcohol addiction The US Public Health Prison Hospital opens in Lexington, KY, as the government's first intentional involvement in addiction treatment. Bill W. and Dr. Bob S. • Bill W. and Dr. Bob S. form Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). alcoholics Cnonymous 1939 • The book Alcoholics Anonymous is published. • The 18th Amendment (Prohibition) is ratified, causing the proliferation of organized crime. • Marijuana becomes a popular replacement for booze. • Sigmund Freud, who treated many cocaine addicts in his career while extolling its virtues at the same time, dies. Marijuana 1940 • The Quarterly Joumal of Studies on Alcohol is published. 1940-1945 • Successful AA members are employed at several major industrial companies, forming the first modern alcoholism programs and modern employee assistance programs (EAPS). 1940-1945 • The National Committee for Education on Alcoholism (NCEA) is founded around the follow 1 Alcoholism is a disease 2 The alcoholic, therefore, is a sick person 3 The alcoholic can be helped 4 The alcoholic is worth helping 5 Alcoholism is our No. 4 public health problem, and our public responsibility • The committee calls for a five-step approach to be achieved by NCEA affiliates: 1 Launch local public education campaigns on alcoholism 2 Encourage hospitals to admit alcoholics for Detox 3 Establish local alcohol information centers 4 Establish local alcoholism clinics 5 Establish "rest centers" for long-term care 1944-1950 • The first state commissions on alcoholism are founded in support of community education and treatment at the local level. • Col. J.M. Phalen, a military surgeon, writes an editorial The Marijuana Bugaboo stating: "The smoking of...cannabis sativa is no more harmful than the smoking of tobacco. It is hoped that no witch hunt will be instituted in the military service over a problem that does not exist." • The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence is founded as an offshoot of Alcoholics Anonymous. 1947 • Addicts Anonymous is formed in Lexington, KY. 1948-1950 • The "Minnesota Model" of chemical dependency treatment is formed by three anti-addiction centers: Pioneer House, Hazelden and Willmar State Hospital. • A variety of drugs are tested and used to treat alcoholism, including Disulfram (Antabuse), barbiturates, amphetamines (Benzedrine) and even LSD. 1950 • AA adopts its twelve traditions. MEDICAL • The National Institute of Mental Health establishes its alcoholism division. • The American Medical Association (AMA) forms a special committee to advance the possibilities of solving alcoholism problems. • Philosopher and economist Ludwig von Mises argues against any laws prohibiting the use of opium and morphine. His argument: "If the government is willing to determine what are 'bad drugs,' what's next? Banning bad books? Bad plays? Art? Music? The mischief done by bad ideologies, surely, is much more pernicious...than that done by narcotic drugs." EARLY 1950's • AA membership surpasses 90,000. This is partly due to an increase in movies about alcoholics. 1950's • Forming of the Association of Halfway House Alcoholism Programs of North America. RECOVERY 1951 • Lois W. and Anne B. start the organization that eventually becomes Al-Anon Family Groups. 1952 • The AMA first defines alcoholism as a disease. • R. Brinkley Smithers establishes the "Christopher D. Smithers Foundation," a charitable organization focusing on alcohol education and treatment. 1954 • The New York City Medical Society on Alcoholism, now known as the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), is formed. • The United Nations estimates that the number of marijuana users worldwide is approx. 200,000,000. • The National Prohibition Party is formed. • Alcohol and Crime, one of the first studies of its kind, is published. 1956 • The AMA recognizes alcoholics as legitimate patients. PART ARANS 1957 • The Veteran's Health Administration (VHA) forms its first alcoholism INITED STATES OF AMERICA treatment units. 1958 • Synanon – the first addiction treatment center founded by an addict – opens, becoming the model for many similar treatment centers through the 1970's. 1961 • The American Bar Association and American Medical Association (ABA/AMA) calls for community-based treatment programs. 1963 • The American Public Health Association recognizes alcoholism as a treatable illness. • Artist Jackson Pollock dies in a single-car crash; he was driving drunk. • The drug Supervisory Body of the UN reports that morphine use increased by 10% worldwide and methadone use increased Jackson Pollock by 50% in just two years. • The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is signed as an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of narcotic drugs, excluding medical purposes. • Troops begin preparing for Vietnam; this will ultimately create more drug addicts than the Armed Forces ever imagined. 1963 - 1966 • The Tobacco industry announces, "Tobacco products pass across sales counters more frequently than anything else - except money." • Federal funding to treat alcoholism increases throughout the 1960's. 1964 • Introduction of Methadone blockade therapy for the treatment of narcotic addiction. 1964 - 1975 • The insurance industry begins to reimburse alcoholism treatment. 1966 • President Johnson appoints the first National Advisory Committee on Alcoholism. • The Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act (NARA) calls for increased federal involvement in supporting local addiction treatment. • William Benitez forms Narconon while serving time for drug possession in Arizona State Prison. President Lyndon Johnson 1967 - 1971 • The U.S. Armed Forces initiate alcoholism and drug counseling programs. • Surgeon General Leonidas Terry reports that smoking may be hazardous to your health. SURGEON GENERAL'S W. Smoking Causes Lung C. Heart Disease, Emphyšsem May Complicate Pregna • The New York Narcotics Addiction Control Program is enacted, allowing judges to commit addicts for compulsory treatment. Leonidas Terry 1972 • The Food and Drug Administration approves use of methadone for treating heroin addiction. • The Drug Abuse Treatment Act (DATA) is passed; TASC (Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime) is created by DATA to screen addicts in the criminal justice system get them treatment. MID 1970's • Alcohol and drug treatment programs become integrated for the first time, locally and nationally. 1975 • Publishing of the Federal White Paper on Drug Abuse, recommending that the federal government expand federal support for addiction treatment. 1978 • Former First Lady, Betty Ford, speaks to the nation about entering recovery for addiction to alcohol and other drugs. • President Nixon calls drug abuse the nation's "Public Enemy #1." Betty Ford President Richard Nixon 67% 1979 • A Gallup poll reports that 67% of Americans believe drug • dealers should receive life sentences with no possibility of parole. EMADD 1980 • Mothers Against Drunk Driving, a powerful grassroots advocacy group, is formed. Nancy 1981 • Launching of Nancy Reagan's "Just Say No" campaign, which combined with the federal government's "zero tolerance" campaign, reduces federal support for drug treatment. Reagan Just • Incarcerations of addicts flood the prisons. say no 1982 • The Betty Ford Clinic opens. • Cocaine Anonymous is founded. 1983 • California offers the first certification exam for addiction medicine. • The National Association for Children of Alcoholics is founded. • The Columbian Medellin mafia begins to do business in the United States. Using “legitimate" businesses such as banking and imports as a cover, they form gangs in low-income neighborhoods, terrorize entire urban areas and encourage the increase in teen drug use. DARE • The Coast Guard seizes over $1 billion in drugs in a sting of Columbian dealers called "Operations Grouper". • Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) is launched. 1984 • The National Minimum Drinking Age Act raises the minimum drinking age in the U.S. to 21, under the threat of losing federal funding for highways. 1985 • Crack cocaine appears for the first time. Crack Cocaine 1985 - 1986 • Forming of the Secular Organization for Sobriety and Rational Recovery, offering recovery help and support without a heavy-handed religious message of other organizations. 1985 - 1990 • Addiction treatment expands toward "special populations" including the elderly, the LGBT community and minorities. • The Crime Control Act sets a determinate sentencing system for drug offenses. • Daily marijuana use by high school students drops by one percentage point. 1990 • Methamphetamine use among high school athletes first begins to make an impression. • NCA changes its name to National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence. Crystal Meth View Go Boskmarks Optiota Directar 1990's • The internet arrives and online recovery support groups Wekcome wh Hentwha's Coo Gutione Hel Search and services become commonplace. Yahoo - A Guide to WWW Y Top l Seoreh Ma Add Melp 1991 • The American Society of Addiction Medicine publishes • Art(460) e Husiness(6420) • Computers(260o9 • Economy(743) Ednoatiadln the ASAM Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders. It recommends a "levels of care" system rather than a single plan of action applied indiscriminately to all patients. 1992 - 1997 • Drug use among teenagers spikes. 1992 • The Americans with Disabilities Acts extends job protection (except in safety-sensitive positions) to former alcoholics and recovering drug addicts. • A national household survey reveals that over 34% of all Americans had tried illicit drugs at least once. • Washington, D.C. Mayor Marion Barry is arrested in a drug sting. • 8.1% of all high school sophomores are smoking marijuana on a regular basis; this statistic will increase to 20.5% by 2001. Marion Berry • Cocaine use over this period for high schoolers will remain fairly static. 1995 • The FDA approves the use of naltrexone to treat alcoholism. 2000's 2000 • The Journal of the American Medical Association proposes that addiction should be treated as a chronic medical illness. 2005 • Annual use of OxyContin® by teenagers rises from 4.0% in OyContir a 2002 to 5.5%. Oxy Contin 2010 • Four of the largest drug busts in history occur, leading to: 439 arrests and the confiscation of 1,267 pounds of methamphetamines, close to 200,000 pounds of marijuana, 5,000 pounds of cocaine and 1,400 pounds of heroin, totaling a street value of $318 million. 2011 - 2012 • US Politicians and citizens urge lawmakers to enforce drug testing before welfare recipients receive government assistance. 2011 - 2012 • British professor of neuropsychopharmacology, David Nutt, says that the US bans on drugs like ecstasy, mushrooms and LSD have hindered neurological research and progression of medicine. • US data statistics suggest that “...a convicted criminal who successfully completes a court-imposed treatment regimen is nearly 60 percent less likely to return to crime than those who go untreated." • The New Jersey Senate passes a bill that requires non-violent drug offenders to undergo treatment instead of serving jail time. BROUGHT TO YOU BY Drug-Rehab.org SOURCES: White, W. "Slaying the Dragon: The History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America". Bloomington, IL: Chestnut Health Systems, 1998. http://www.addiction2.com/marijuana/history-of-marijuana-cannabis-timeline.html http://wiki.monticello.org/mediawiki/index.php/Hemp http://books.google.com/books?id=BuzNzm- xolec&pg=PP1&dq=Alcohol+and+Temperance+in+Modem+History:+An+Intemational+Encyclopedia# V=onepage&q=8f=false>. http://www.trivia-library.com/a/history-of-legal-and-illegal-drugs-from-1800-to-1850-ad.htm http://www.eapoe.org/geninfo/poealchl.htm http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/history/1870/easychair.htm http://www.lectlaw.com/files/drgo9.htm http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/history/1980-1985.html http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.govpublications/factsht/druguse/ http://www.justice.gov/dea/concem/oxycontin.html http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/cocaine/cocaine.shtml http://www.justice.gov/dea/concem/marijuana.html http://www.legendsofamerica.com/WE-JJWebb.htmb. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/722353/Dianetics-The-Modern-Science-of-Mental-Health http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/bulletin/bulletin_1957-01-01_1_page006.html>. http://www.nytimes.com/1987/02/24/us/high-school-marijuana-use-still-declining-us-survey-shows.html http://www.foxnews.com/health/2012/05/17/data-suggests-drug-treatment-can-lower-us-crime/ ASSOCL SERVICE

A History of Addiction Treatment in the US

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