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Are we Driving Our Kids to Drugs?

ARE WE DRIVING OUR KIDS TO DRUGS? IS OUR DESIRE FOR THEIR SUCCESS PUSHING THEM TOWARDS ILLEGAL PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS, BETTER KNOWN AS 'SMART DRUGS'? WHAT ARE SMART DRUGS Smart drugs, also commonly known as nootropics or cognitive enhancers, include a wide range of supplements and pharmaceuticals designed to improve mental function. These drugs enhance (or are reputed to enhance) memory, focus, motivation, cognition, and/or alertness. MEMORY FOCUS MOTIVATION COGNITION ALERTNESS WHY STUDENTS TAKE SMART DRUGS? Academic Factors INCREASED COMPETITION RISING TUITION FEES JOB SCARCITY Unemployment for 16-24 year olds in the UK in 2014. 1.7% Tuition for UK courses starting in 2013 cost as much as 3x more than they did in 2011. Between 2012-2013 the number of applicants to UK universities rose 19.9% 2011 3X Within the next 20 years, Some forecasts predict that the number of university places needed will grow To get top entry-level jobs, students seek to setOAY themselves apart by not only getting top grades, but also loading their schedules with demanding 2013 360,000 460,000 In 2014, Annual 2% 20 years later tuition to rise an extra-curricular activities current (community service, sports, internships, etc.). average of Social Pressures Awareness that other students are taking these drugs breeds feelings of unfair advantage and sparks desire to "keep up". Today's social and technological environment increasingly promotes supplements, drugs and devices that increase productivity. Culture of "life hacking" promotes the notion that there is a technological solution for every lack. HISTORICAL PRECEDENCE Sir Francis Bacon used everything from tobacco to saffron in hopes of improving mental function. Honore de Balzac reputedly fuelled sixteen-hour bouts W.H. Auden took Benzedrine daily for 20 years. Ayn Rand used Benzedrine to help her finish The Fountainhead. Jean-Paul Sartre dosed himself with speed in order to finish "Critique of Dialectical Reason." of writing with copious servings of coffee, saying it, "chases away sleep, and gives us the capacity to engage a little longer in the exercise of our intellects." Athletic Performance Some competitive athletes use smart drugs to prolong training sessions, increase focus, and boost endurance. World Anti-Doping Agency listed Modafinil as a banned substance in 2004. 573 ACCESS POINTS Unregulated Online Sales 40% online drug purchase 573 Study drugs are widely available from online pharmacies (many based in India), which sell them in bulk packs for about £1-£2 per pill. Newsnight and New Scientist magazines anonymous online questionnaire found that nearly 40% of smart drug users bought the drug online. MHRA has seized 2.3 million doses of unlicensed medicines (including 68,000 doses of counterfeit medicines), suspended more than 384 UK websites, and shut down 120 domain names. Unnecessary Prescriptions Healthy students fake the well-known symptoms of ADHD to obtain prescriptions. =10,000 2007 420,000 50% The use of ADHD drugs has increased by 50% in six years. 2013 657,000 Prescriptions for methylphenidate drugs, including Ritalin, have risen 56% between 2007 and 2012. CG 202 56%1 CQC reports that prescriptions for methylphenidate rose 11% between 2011 and 2012. 11% Students Selling to Students Students with prescriptions stockpile their medicines and sell them or give them to friends on campus. 54% A US study by McCabe, Teter and Boyd (2006) found 54% of prescribed college students had been approached to sell, exchange or give away their medication. HOW COMMON ARE THEY? An anonymous online survey by Newsnight and New Scientist magazines found out their readers Had taken smart drugs 38% Claim they would try them again 92% Researchers found that 10% 30% of Cambridge University students admit to using smart drugs Claim they would use them if they had access 1/5 of academics polled by Nature magazine reported having used them 25% THE MOST LIKELY SMART DRUG ABUSERS A 2012 poll of Oxford University students concluded 7% use smart White ... 10x more likely to have smoked marijuana in past year drugs. In the US, rates of smart drug use are even higher: Male ... Fraternity or sorority members Undergraduates at highly competitive schools of American college of high school seniors have taken Adderall Those with GPAS 20x more likely to have used cocaine students have taken of 3.0 or lower smart drugs LEGAL IMPLICATIONS MODAFINIL (PROVIGIL) RITALIN ADDERALL CG 202 573 5 YEARS IN PRISON 5 YEARS IN PRISON Classed as a prescription-only medicine in UK, but not controlled by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. As a methylphenidate, it is a prescription-only drug in the UK. If not prescribed, Ritalin is a class B drug. The penalty for possession of Ritalin is up to 5 years in prison, an unlimited fine or both. Amphetamine, which is a class B drug in the UK. Without a prescription, the maximum penalties for Adderall are 5 years in prison and/or an unlimited fine for possession. Legal to import for personal use. It is legal to possess (in small amounts). However, supplying Modafinil is illegal. The penalty for supplying (sharing or dealing) Ritalin could lead to up to 14 years in prison, an unlimited fine or both. 14 years in prison and/or an unlimited fine for supplying. Side Effects CG 573 202 I/10 USERS EXPERIENCE COMMON COMMON Headaches High Blood Pressure Upper Abdominal Pain Nausea/Vomiting Headaches Nausea Nervousness 1/100 USERS EXPERIENCE Upper Abdominal Pain Chronic Trouble Sleeping Over Excitement Easily Angered or Annoyed Anxiety or worsening of anxiety Faster heart rate Chronic Trouble Anxiety Sleeping Nausea Chest pain Palpitations INFREQUENT INFREQUENT Depression Excessive Sweating Involuntary Quivering Diarrhea Angina Trouble Breathing Hives Inexplicable anger 1/1000 USERS EXPERIENCE RARE Anxiety Temporary Erectile Dysfunction Personality changes Inflammation of Chronic Muscle Twitches the tongue Seizures Brain or central Memory problems Inflammation of Blood Vessels in the Brain RARE Stunted Growth nervous system Abnormal Liver Function Stimulant addiction Stevens-Johns on Syndrome problems Migraines Breathing difficulties Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Mouth ulcers Loss of Normal Abnormal Heart Personality & Reality Seizures Voluntary Movement Difficulty Decreased libido Speech problems Rhythm Hair Loss Difficulty swallowing Diabetes Cerebral Abnormal Heart Migraine Headaches Depression Hemorrhaging Rhythm High cholesterol &/or blood Stroke Suicidal Thoughts Loss of Normal Personality & Reality Hepatitis Stroke Hair Loss pressure Chronic Muscle Twitches Heart Attack 1/10000 USERS EXPERIENCE Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Psychosis DO THEY WORK? Because these drugs are tested, licensed, and intended for individuals with sleep and attention disorders, little is known about their effects on healthy individuals. However, a growing body of small studies are beginning to reveal a clearer picture. Many researchers believe smart drugs enhance the ability to focus, whilst dulling the brain's imagination and creativity. 2002 2003 Cambridge study found Modafinil improved planning, pattern recognition, and reaction time, while reducing impulsive reactions in healthy individuals. 573 Cambridge study concludes “Modafinil offers significant potential as a cognitive enhancer," by improving memory, visual pattern recognition, and spatial-planning. MODAFINIL 2012 2005 UK gov. thinktank Foresight suggests Modafinil improves planning abilities when undertaking complex, chess-like problems. Study on sleep-deprived healthy male doctors show Modafinil increased efficiency on working memory problems, contributed to less impulsive decision-making, and allowed users to more flexibly redirect their attention-concluding that fatigued doctors might benefit from pharmacological enhancement. CURRENT Has been shown to improve stop-signal reaction time, while making subjects feel “more alert, attentive and energetic." Modafınil has been shown to release Used by the military to keep pilots and Special Forces awake on missions lasting up to 48 hours without sleep. dopamine, meaning it has both a high potential for addiction and an ability to make mundane tasks seem quite enjoyable. CG 202 1996 2010 Study on 28 healthy young men shows Ritalin improves short-term memory and planning abilities Louisiana State University study finds Ritalin may improve memory, while impairing ability to perform tasks requiring adaption, flexibility and planning. RITALINIADDERALL 30-day Stanford University study into Alzheimer's drug, Aricept, shows pilots having improved working memory when on drug. Psychologists found Piracetam improved participants' verbal memory scores after two weeks on the drug. OTHER University of Pennsylvania study finds no difference in 13 different cognitive tests for participants given Adderall and those given placebos STUDY DRUGS SIGNS OF SMART DRUG ABUSE Little is known about the long-term effects of smart drug abuse, and symptoms vary widely depending on the particular of drug being used. However, some common telltale signs that an individual is using such drugs include: Persistent twitching, leg-shaking, or tapping (Particularly with stimulants like Adderall and Ritalin) Uncharacteristic irritability, angry outbursts over small distractions Significant lack of sleep, and unnatural wakefulness Loss of appetite and/or weight Single-minded obsession with tasks Grinding teeth and/or clenching jaw Uncharacteristic talkativeness Unnatural levels of enthusiasm and/or intensity during social interaction they_loved amphetamines.html, page 7 MeCabe, S. E., Knight, J. R., Teter, C. J., & Wechsler, H. (2005). "Non-medical use of prescription stimulants among US college students: Prevalence and correlates from a national survey". Addiction, 99, 96-106. www.drugabuse.govldrugs-abuse/prescription-drugs Firth .A (2013) in Western Eye "Should Students Take Smart Drugs?". 11/02/2013 besed on a debate with a 'panel of experts'. fact_talbot?currentPage=all*20of%20modafinil.pdf www.theguardian.comleducation/mortarboard/2012/oct/24/smart-drugs-would-you-try-them creative BY NC SA ........

Are we Driving Our Kids to Drugs?

shared by alex.bradnum on May 16
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Prescriptions for ADHD medicine has increased by 50% in the last six years. You might argue that this could be explained by better diagnosis of the condition, but there is a worrying new craze amongst...


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