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Oh, the Places You Can Go! Human Toilets and Urinals

oh, the places you can go! human toilets and urinals Collection Buckets One of the most popular and successful toilets. A bucket with a lid and often a seat, designed for collection and agricultural re-use. Used in major cities into the mid-20oth century including Copenhagen, Stockholm, Shanghai, and Manchester. Traditionally, excrement has been incorporated directly into soil, but buckets Squat Toilets For most people outside of Europe and the Americas, squatting is the normal position. Squat toilets are built into the floor, and available in every variety found among pedestal (seated) toilets. Squatting may prevent several intestinal disorders through a straighter and easier intestine position. The Ground Chamber Pot As long has there have been people, there have been people going in the bushes. Common around the world, chamber pots all follow the same design pattern: a flared opening to squat over and a slightly narrowed may be emptied into a compost pile (a.k.a humanure process). Additives are often used to control odor. neck to prevent sloshing. Squat/Sit- A compromise pedastal toilet accomodating squating as well. Also known as "Anglo-Indian" for their popularity in colonial India where both British and Indian users shared toilets. Composting Toilets A wide variety of composting toilets and composting systems exist. Distinctions are made between the toilet itself and the composting chamber. Latrines Urine Diversion Urinals Most often a pit with box and seat covering it. A trench for straddling Mechanization and automation do not necessarilly produce better compost. Toilets may drop straight to a composting chamber or flushed to one is popular with militaries. A 19th century American innovation is to dig 6ft deep so intestinal parasites can't crawl out. Used with both flush and dry Devices for urine only. Most -but not all- are designed for men. (composting, desiccating) toilets to reduce mineralization of pipes, control moisture levels in compost water-seal as flush toilets to piles, and to redirect urine for fertilizer. Urine flushes to the with a micro flush system. Chambers fall into two rough categories, continuous composters and batch composters, most are ventilated like the VIP. Flush Urinal- Uses the same contain odor. Innumerable shapes share the same rough pattern of a wall-mounted scoop. Piss Pot- A pot for urine only. In Imperial China they were crafted of glass and ceramic. Plastic models include the Lady "J," popular among sailors (see FUD). front, feces to the back. O00 Desiccating Toilets Solar heated and ventilated to VIP- The Ventilated Improved Pit. A lined gft deep pit prevents leaching and well designed ventilation controls odor inside. Additives All additives perform some combination of odor control, transport, or processing. Flush Toilets Multi-user urinal wall- A Female Urination Device- Water has been used to remove excrement for millennia, but all contemporary flush toilets share an innovation: a pipe bend -usually S-shaped- that prevents sewer gas from flowing out the toilet bowl. dry excrement, reducing volume and pathogens. Some composting toilets may become desiccating toilets, especially small systems and those in dry climates. Dual Flush- A standard flush toilet with two options: large and small flush, usually .8 and 1.2 gallons respectively. wall with a drainage area at the bottom, popular in high-traffic mens restrooms for its simplicity and multi-user design. (FUD) Funnel-shaped urine directing devices to assist in peeing standing up. Variously rigid, collapsable, or disposable. Often has two alternating pits. Reservoir/Pour flush- The standard. Where plumbed water is available, a reservoir fills the bowl. Otherwise water is poured in manually. Toilet With Bidet- Popular where wash water, rather than toilet paper, is traditional. Sprayers self-clean with UV. Water- A common means of tranport. Water simplifies removal but through dilution complicates treatment and nutrient recovery. Squat Urinal- A squat plate for urine only. Used by men and women where squatting is favored. Female Urinals- Similar to Carbon Matter- Sawdust, rice hulls, and other finely sized organic matter provide an excellent smell barrier. Carbon standard urinal designs, but elongated or floor mounted. Not broadly accepted. Micro/VacuLum/Foam Flush A small flush of 4-320z was hes excrement from the bowl and a vacuum or blast of pressurized air sends it to a collection or composting chamber. Foamed soap is sometimes added to lubricate pipes and prevent streaking in the bowl. Open Latrine-At its most basic, a latrine is a spot to sit above a pile of excrement or a body of Syphon Flush- Identical to reservoir flush except for a water jet. Spraying into the bowl, the jet completely fills the drain to create a syphon. Easily identified by its distinct sucking sound. Hochspüler Toilet- "High Flush" toilets have a shelf at the content aides in composting. back for catching feces out of the water. Flushes go toward the front of the bowl. Found primarily in Germany & Holland., water. Basic Chemicals- Lime, ashes, and ferric sulfate mitigate smells by neutralizing volatile gasses that create odor. High pH kills pathogens. These chemicals provide nutrients but may inhibit soil organisms when incorporated. Urine Collection Device- Waterless Urinal Seal-an oil (UCD) An external catheter and collection bag wearable underneath clothing. Popular with airplane pilots, surgeons, and sports fans. or other aquaphobic liquid seal in place of a water seal; no flushing. May be used with urine diversion system or plumbed. Gaining in popularity since the 1980's. Packaging Toilet A continuous feed of plastic wraps excrement. Introduced by R. Buckminster Fuller in 1927, mass Incineration Toilet An early 20th century innovation, kerosene, gas, & electricity are all used to incinerate human Chemical Toilet Toilet seat sits directly above a collection chamber containing liquid chemicals that mitigate Moule's Earth Closet Invented in England by Reverend Moule in the 1850's, it challenged flush toilets for a time. Excrement is covered with a layer of dirt for Recirculating Toilet A collection chamber below the bowl containing liquid chemicals or a layer of oil is pumped back up to the bowl to flush. Found mostly in boats and submarines. Acids, etc.- Sulfuric acid, Chlo- rates, aldehydes, and alcohols have been used in dry and chemi- cal toilets. While inhibiting odor and biological activity, they are often poisonous and may toxify air, soil or water. produced since the '60's. Popular with customs officers seeking easy inspection. excrement, ventilating flame out a fodor and biological activity. smokestack. Female Hand Technique- With a hand pulling up and pushing in, a woman can produce a controlled urine stream while Anywhere- No matter what the provision, some people will always pee in undesignated areas. odor control and re-use. Owned by Queen Victoria. standing up. 1. © 2010, Cloacina. • • created by Molly Danielsson (illustrator) & Mathew Lippincott Citations:

Oh, the Places You Can Go! Human Toilets and Urinals

shared by mollydanielsson on Feb 13
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Learn about all the toilets in use around the world. Flush toilets are a small subsection.




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