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The Bauhaus

Bauhaus I Bauhaus, derived from the German Bauen Haus, meaning Building House, is a school that was founded in Weimar, Germany in 1919 and forever changed the way we approach design and architecture education. O Tea Pot by Marianme Brandt, 2 Vlassily Chair by Marcel Breuer, OTea Pot by Marianne Brandt, OCantilever chair by Mies DESIGN ITS IMPACT ON EDUCATION Previous Approach to Design Education Bauhaus Approach to Education There were clearly defined separations between disciplines. There were no separations between disciplines. The idea was to create a total work of art where all arts could be brought together. BAUHAUS CURRICULUM 1/2 YR STUDY OF MATERIALS GL COURSE TUDY OF NATURE 3 YRS PRELIMINAR AND TOOLS STONE 2 YRS ARCHITECTURE BUILDING ENGINEERING TOWN PLANNING METAL COMPUSITION STUDY SPACE STUDY, COLOR STUDY KEXTILES PRELIMINARY COURSE IMPORTANT PEOPLE A list of a few people who greatly impacted the Bauhaus and later the world. STUDENT Walter Gropius 1883-1969 PROFESSOR He was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School in Weimar, Germany, 1919. DIRECTOR Josef Albers Laszlo Moholy-Nagy 1895-1946 1888-1976 Albers enrolled in the Bauhaus in 1920 and was later asked to teach the In 1923, Moholy-Nagy replaced Johannes Itten as the instructor of the foundation course at the Bauhaus. preliminary course in 1923. In 1925 he was promoted to professor and married Anni Albers, who was also studying at the Bauhaus. Under his teachings, the school moved effectively away from expressionistic leanings and towards a more successful design and industrial integration. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 1886-1969 Marcel Breuer 1902-1981 Following the resignation of Hannes Meyer due to his strong political involvement, Mies became the director of the Bauhaus. He sensed that the school needed to focus more on form and function rather than politics. During his time as director, he put the majority of emphasis on the study of architecture and interior design. Breuer was a Hungarian-born modernist, architect and furniture designer who studied and taught at the Bauhaus. GERMANY 1919-1933 '19 '20 '21 '22 '23 1919-1924 '24 '25 '26 '27 '28 '29 '30 '31 1924-1932 '32 '33 NAZIS CLOSE BAUHAUS AS IT IS CONSIDERED "DEGENERATE" 1932-1933 MANY OF THE BAUHAUS STAFF EMIGRATE TO OTHER COUNTRIES SPREADING BAUHA US STYLE, SOON TO BE KNOWN AS INTERNATIONAL STYLE LONDON, UK GROPIUS & BREUER & MOHOLY-NAGY work for ISOKON before heading to the United States. NORTH CAROLINA, USA JOSEF ALBERS emigrates to North Carolina, where he begins teaching at Black Mountain College. "INTERNATIONAL STYLE" The term originated from the name of a book by Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson, The International Style, which was written to record the International Exhibition of Modern Architecture held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1932 and it identified, categorized and expanded upon characteristics common to Modernism across the world and its stylistic aspects. CAMBRIDGE, MA CHICAGO, IL THE NEW BAUHAUS In 1937, MOHOLY-NAGY emigrates to Chicago and founds the New Bauhaus school under the sponsorship of industrialist and philanthropist Walter Paepcke. This school later becomes the Institute of Design, part of the Illinois Institute of Technology IIT. 38 38 39 40 41 39 40 41 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 HARVARD 46 47 48 49 46 47 IIT 48 utunt 49 GSD 50 50 51 52 53 51 52 53 54 54 55 55 56 56 57 57 58 58 Department of Archi tecture at Chicago's Armour Institute of Technology (later renamed Illinois Institute of Technology - IIT) At the time, the Harvard Graduate School of Design was developing into a hub of resistance to the Beaux-Arts orthodoxy. SR Crown Hall, NT, Chicago Har vard Graduate School d Design (GDS) At the center, were members of the Bauhaus, a European architectural movement that had advanced the cause of modernist design. Here Mies introduced a new kind of education and attitude later known as Second Chicago School. IMPORTANT HARVARD ALUMNI Lawrence Halprin 1916-2009 leoh Ming Pei 1917-Present Halprinwas an influential American landscape architect, designer and teacher. Afterearning a BA. at Cornell University and an M.A. at the University of Wisconsin, he then earned a second bachelor's After studying architecture at University of Pennsybvania and engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Pei studied at Harvard Graduate School of Design in 1942 under Walter Gropius, His studies were temporarily paused when he volunteered for the National Defense Research Committe, but degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Design, where his professors included architects Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer. His Harvard classmates included he returned to Harvard in 1944. Philip Johnson and L.M. Pei. Freeway Park, Seatle, USA Loure Museum, Paris, France Paul Rudolph 1918-1997 Philip Johnson 1906-2005 Afterearning his bachelor's degree in architecture at Auburn University (then known as Alabama Polytechnic Institute) in 1940, Rudolph then moved on to the Harvard Graduate School of Design to study with Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius. After three years, he left to serve in the Navy for another three years, returning to Harvard to receive his master's in 1947. In 1928 Johnson met with architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who was at the time designing the Pavilion for the 1929 Barcelona International Exposition. The meeting was a revelation for Johnson and formed the basis fora lifelong relationship of both collaboration and competition. He later studied architecture at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. It was Johnson who invited Josef Albers to teach at Black Mountain College in North Carolina. Johnson Orange County Government Center, New Yark, USA Mies WINNER OF THE PRITZKER PRIZE The Seagram, New York, USA The Bauhaus not only impacted design and architecture on an international level, but also revolutionized the way de sign schools conceptualize education as a means of imparting an integrated design approach where form follows function. A special thanks for the expertise of Hemán Marchant, Associate Dean of Undergraduate and Interdisciplinary Studies in the School of Design at North Carolina State University. Sources Interview with Hernán Marchant, History of Graphic Design, Designed by Megan Jet EORM AND MATERIALS STRUCTION TUDY RESENTATION COLOR STUDY OF FOR WOOD TUDY OF MATERIALS WEIMAR Gropius DESSAU Breuer BERLIN Albers Saiw Moholy-Nagy CAMBRIDGE, MA Gropius. Breuer Halprin Pei Johnson Mies CHICAGO

The Bauhaus

shared by mmjett on Apr 19
How the Bauhaus helped the spread of modernism




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