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Illegal Drug Market Violence in Mexico

ELEGAL DRUG MARKET WIOLENCE IN MEXICO Percent of Homicides Linked to Drug War Violence in Mexico The United States considers Mexico its #1 drug trafficking threat, and perhaps for good reason. About 90% of the cocaine used in the country comes through Mexico. In recent years drug war violence has escalated to 90% an extremely barbarous zenith, with homicides increasing astronomically. Learn more about the trade, the cartels, and how the violence has developed. VICTIMS OF PROHIBITION VIOLENCE IN MEXICO 2007: 25.71% 2008 36.79% 62 The latest estimate is around deaths during Felipe Calderon's five years as Mexico's president. 2009: 42.66% 2006 2,826 6,837 2007 9,614 x1000 C. 2008 89% 70% 2009 2010 70% of murders have About 89% of these deaths are believed to be gang members involved in turf wars. occurred in just 85 of the 2,500 municipalities in the country. Percentage of Homicides by State Number of Homicides by State in 2010 BCN Otros 4% Morelos - 1.5% More than 250 SON CHH Distrito Federal - 1.5% 201 - 250 Chihuahua 27% COA BCS 151 - 200 Nayarit - 1.95% NLE 101-150 Coahuila - 2% DUR SIN 51 - 100 Sonora - 2% TAM ZAC 1- 50 Michoacan - 3% NAY Baja California - 3% AGS QUE YUC GTO Sinaloa HGO Jalisco - 4% JAL 19% MIC MEX TLA COL CAM VER MOR TAB GRO PUE OAX CHP Nuevo Durango 8% Léon 5% Mexican Drug Cartels' Main Areas of Influence Edomex 5% Tamaulipas 6% Guerrero 7% Areliano Felix Organisation Cartel Pacifico Sur Los Zetas Sinaloa Federation Carrilo Fuentes Organisation Gulf Cartel PROFILES OF MAIN CARTELS La Familia Michoacan/ Knights Templar Independent Cartel of Acapulco Disputed Territory SINALOA FEDERATION July 2011: 120-hectare marijuana growing op uncovered in Baja California, run by Sinaloa. This is the largest, most influential cartel. Named for the region located on the Pacific Coast. Leader: Joaquin "El Chapo (Shorty)" Guzman July 2010: The army kills another leader, Ignacio "Nacho" Coronel. Reputation for buying off officials. Some speculate the federation is involved with the ruling party in Mexico. Current Status: Escaped prison in 2001 and has never been recaptured. GULF CARTEL Once a very powerful cartel, Gulf has struggled since Guillén's arrest. Because of this conflict, Gulf has out of necessity allied with Sinaloa. The two typically rival each other. Rival cartel Los Zetas are engaged in turf wars with Gulf in three states: Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon and Coahuila. Los Zetas were once part of Gulf, but split off in 2010, Leader: Osiel Cárdenas Guillén Current Status: Arrested in 2004 LOS ZETAS Mexico's most violent criminal organization; members are ex-special forces. Has control over much of the Gulf Coast. August 2010: 72 migrants killed; Los Zetas linked to the murders. August 2011: Attack on Monterrey casino killed 52 people; Los Zetas suspected. Beltran-Leyva Organization is an ally. Leader: Heriberto Lazcano Lazcano "El Lazca" Known for attacks on prisons, government offices and more. Current Status: Fugitive CARILLO FUENTES ORGANISATION A.k.a. The "Juarez Cartel" Rivals with Sinaloa, 6,500 deaths in the city between December 2006 and December 2010. Central to the city of Ciudad Juarez х100 Allied with Los Zetas and Itran-Leyva Organization Trying with Los Zetas to remove Sinaloa from Chihuahua area. That's 19% of all homicides Leader: Vicente Carrillo Fuentes for the city during that time. Current Status: Fugitive BELTRAN-LEYVA ORGANISATION Named for the leader brothers, who were chief security for Sinaloa before breaking off in 2008, when brother Alfredo was arrested, Arturo Beltran-Leyva was killed in 2009; brother Hector took leadership. They sided with Los Zetas when that happened. Many deaths and arrests have put the Beltran-Leyva Organization behind other major cartels. Leader: Hector Beltran-Leyva Current Status: Fugitive ARELIANO FELIX ORGANISATION The five brothers who began the organization have been killed or arrested. Split into two in 2008, when final brother Eduardo Arellano Felix was arrested. The two groups sided with Los Zetas and Sinaloa. Leader is a cousin of theirs, Fernando Sanchez Arellano. Leader: Fernando Sanchez Arellano, or El Ingeniero, "The Engineer" Current Status: Fugitive LA FAMILIAR MICIIOACANA Began as an anti-drug group. Changed sides quite noticeably in 2006, when members tossed five disembodied heads onto the floor of a nightclub. Known for religious affiliations. Leader: Leader Nazario Moreno González, or El Mas Loco, "The Craziest One" # 1 supplier of methamphetamine until December 2010, when González was killed. After this, Sinaloa took over the meth trade. Turf wars with Los Zetas began government operation against cartels in 2006. 399 Current Status: Killed by police in 2010 After this, a split occurred: the new faction is called THE FUTURE 70% of Mexicans believe the drug situation in 2010 than in 2009. 30% feared the situation would be was Numbers for this year have not yet been released. The United States recommends travelers avoid certain states in Mexico, while also assuring visitors that no particular threats against US citizens are apparent. Citizens are "urged to defer non-essential travel to the states of states of Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sinaloa, Durango, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi and Jalisco." and to parts of the Sources: http://www.gov.harvard.edu/files/Rios%28etal%29 DrugRelatedViolence2010.pdf http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-12194138 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-10681249 http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2011/08/28/f-mexico-drug-cartels.html http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/tw/tw_5440.html Special Thanks to: Tom Angell at LEAP (Law Enforcement Against Prohibition) out of 2,500

Illegal Drug Market Violence in Mexico

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The US prohibition of drugs has led to unprecedented levels of violence between warring cartels in Mexico and the US ‘War on Drugs’ has failed to curtail this violence. This graphic provides a sna...

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