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Understanding the Importance of Title IX

UNDERSTANDING THE IMPORTANCE OF TITLE IX WHAT IS TITLE IX? Penalties for TITLE IX, ENACTED IN 1972, STATES THAT non-compliance include LOSS OF FEDERAL FUNDING. "no person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance" EDUCATION HUGE JUMP IN SPORTS PARTICIPATION BY HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS JUST 7% OF GIRLS MORE THAN 41% OF GIRLS In the In the 1971-1972 294,015 2013-2014 3.2 MILLION SCHOOL YEAR SCHOOL YEAR 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 No. of girls participating in high school sports 1972 WOMEN RECEIVED ONLY 2% of school athletic budgets IN 1972 and very few athletic scholarships for women existed. 2% 2010 College athletic budgets and scholarship BY 2010, WOMEN RECEIVED 40% of school athletic budgets and made up 53% of the student body. OPPORTUNITIES FOR 40% WOMEN HAVE DRAMATICALLY 48% OF TOTAL ATHLETIC SCHOLARSHIPS INCREASED, but there is room for improvement. at Division 1 schools are GOING TO WOMEN. 48% KEY MOMENTS IN SPORTS HISTORY SINCE TITLE IX CONGRESS & PRESIDENT 1972 NIXON ENACT AND SIGN Title IX into law. BILLIE JEAN KING DEFEATS BOBBY RIGGS 1973 in the "Battle of the Sexes" tennis match. CONGRESS APPROVES 1975 final Title IX regulations ANN MEYERS Department of Health, Education, and Welfare issues its policy interpretation, in which it elaborates on 3 areas becomes the FIRST WOMAN to try out and 1978 SIGN A CONTRACT FOR AN NBA TEAM. for Title IX compliance: 1979 • participation • scholarships • other benefits such as equipment, facilities, coaching and support services In order to meet the participation component, an institution must include one of the following: PROPORTIONALITY HISTORY EFFECTIVELY ACCOMMODATING AND CONTINUING PRACTICE INTERESTS AND ABILITIES Comparison of the ratio of female to male athletes with the ratio of female to male full-time students. History of athletic program growth for the underrepresented sex. Schools that can show they PROVIDE PARTICIPATION OPPORTUNITIES that meet the SCHOOLS THAT CAN SHOW PROGRAM EXPANSION from 1972 athletic interests of both genders are most likely in compliance. SCHOOLS ARE MOST LIKELY IN COMPLIANCE IF THEIR RATIOS through the present are most likely in compliance. ARE EQUAL. This has become known as the 3-prong test. 1ST NCAA WOMEN'S BASKETBALL 1982 CHAMPIONSHIP. Louisiana Tech defeats Cheney State 76-62 The Supreme Court rules Title IX applies only to federally funded PROGRAMS in an institution 1984 This decision effectively eliminates Title IX coverage of CIVIL RIGHTS RESTORATION ACT MOST ATHLETIC PROGRAMS PASSES over President Reagan's veto. The act overturns the 1988 Supreme Court's 1984 decision and restores Title IX coverage. The United States * * SOccer team wins 1991 THE FIRST WOMEN'S WORLD CUP. FRANKLIN Vv. GWINNETT NCAA PUBLISHES A COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS Supreme Court finds that monetary damages are available under Title IX GENDER-EQUITY STUDY of its member institutions, detailing widespread sex discrimination in athletics 1992 NCAA. programs. EQUITY IN ATHLETICS Cohen V. Brown University, federal appeals court upholds a lower court's ruling, holding that BROWN UNIVERSITY ILLEGALLY DISCLOSURE ACT PASSES requiring institutions to disclose information about the gender breakdown of their 1994 DISCRIMINATED AGAINST intercollegiate athletic DEJUS FEMALE ATHLETES. programs 1996 Brown argued that it did not violate Title IX because women are less interested in sports than men. WNBA STARTS. 1997 COMMUNITIES FOR EQUITY V. MICHIGAN HS ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION 2001 finds Michigan state athletic associations liable for discrimination by forcing six girls sports to compete in nontraditional and/or disadvantageous WIMBLEDON tennis tournament announces it WILL AWARD MEN AND WOMEN EQUAL prize money for the first time. THE CAPIONSHI 2007 IMBLEDO seasons. MASUN DANICA PATRICK is the 2008 FIRST WOMAN TO WIN BIEDIGER V. QUINNIPIAC AN INDY CAR RACE. UNIVERSITY finds that Quinnipiac University's elimination of women's volleyball and creation of competitive cheerleading was a For the first time in 2010 Olympic history, the U.S. SENDS MORE FEMALE OLYMPIANS THAN MALE BREACH OF TITLE IX to compete in the 2012 Games. because it deprived female athletes of equal participation opportunities. 2012 Women outmedal men for the U.S., China, and Russia. Women's boxing makes its Olympic debut. THE CURRENT STATE OF FEMALE SPORTS Both female and male sports participation in college sports has been rising since Title IX was passed. HIGH SCHOOL SPORTS PARTICIPATION HAS INCREASED for the 25th 170,384 265,000 year in a row for both boys and girls and almost 7.8 MILLION CHILDREN 29,997 203,000 ARE PARTICIPATING IN SPORTS. 1972 I Men's in NCAA IWomen's in NCAA 2013 Some coaches and athletic directors believe 1981 2013 1981 2013 TITLE IX NEGATIVELY AFFECTS MALE-ORIENTED SPORTS PROGRAMS. 4,776 | 10,173 6,843 8,905 BUT SPORTS TEAMS OF BOTH GENDERS WOMEN'S MEN'S ARE GROWING. TEAMS IN NCAA TEAMS IN NCAA Approximately $480 MILLION 48 in athletic scholarships out of % $1B ANNUALLY OF ATHLETIC SCHOLARSHIP RECIPIENTS ARE FEMALE. THE FUTURE OF TITLE IX CHANGES THAT COULD IMPACT TITLE IX AND WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS In August 2014, THE NCAA REVISED RULES to give 65 big-conference schools more autonomy These schools will be able to approve rules that apply only to them, most notably, PAYING COLLEGE ATHLETES to provide their athletes with more scholarship money and medical care. MORE THAN SCHOLARSHIP RULES CURRENTLY ALLOW. DECLINE OF FEMALE COACHES. 1974 FEMALE COACHES 90+% OF ALL FEMALE ATHLETIC COACHES 2013 FEMALE COACHES 40% OF ALL FEMALE ATHLETIC COACHES SOURCES: What is title IX The history of Title IX 2B-%2B6-23-03.html The current state OHIO 130 4 The future UNIVERSITY 0000

Understanding the Importance of Title IX

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Before Title IX of the Education Amendment was signed in 1972, there were roughly 310,000 women and girls playing sports in colleges and high schools throughout the nation. Thanks to the law, there ar...


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