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North Korean Refugees

NORTH KOREA'S REFUGEES REASONS TO ESCAPE "North Korea does not respect human dignity. This is why so many people are trying to escape." - Han Nam-Su, North Korean Refugee Enforced poverty & economic oppression Denial of basic freedoms Increasing awareness of Reuniting with family outside world OBSTACLES TO ESCAPING NORTH KOREA Any citizen who crosses a frontier of the Republic without permission shall be committed to a detention labor facility for up to two years. -Article 233 of the North Korean Penal Code High security to prevent escapes: tight border controls, shoot-to-kill policies, and rewards for capturing defectors Severe punishment for attempted escapes: detention, interrogation, physical and sexual violence, forced labor, execution CHINA IS NOT A REFUGE The border between North and South Korea is the most heavily fortified in the world. As such, North Koreans hoping to escape must go through China where an estimated 30-50K refugees live in fear and face many challenges. Violating international law, the Chinese iS " government actively arrests and repatriates North Korean refugees 33}I3}}}}}}}}}} Networks assisting refugees in China face security crackdowns, arrest, detention and deportation China allows North Korean Chinese citizens are encouraged to report refugees security agents to hunt down refugees within its borders North Korean women who escape to China face: Human trafficking, prostitution and forced marriages where they can be sold multiple times for as little as $200 $200 Separation from their children due to repatriation UNDERGROUND RAILROAD Similar to slaves in pre-Civil War America, North Korean refugees escape to freedom via a secret and informal network known as the "underground railroad." Route Resettlement opportunities in South Korea Resettlement opportunities in the West After crossing the border into China, refugees access the underground railroad via various networks. Most common escape route is an arduous 3,000 mile journey through China and Southeast Asian countries like Burma, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam; from there refugees can seek resettlement in a safe and free country. The railroad is operated by brokers, Christian Conductors provide refugees with safe houses, food, and clothes. missionaries, and NG0S. These "conductors" risk their own safety helping North Koreans. There are also unscrupulous conductors who exploit refugees. "Thanks to the new underground railroad, awareness is growing among ordinary North Koreans of the world outside their country's borders." Melanie Kirkpatrick, Escape from North Korea IT'S GETTING HARDER TO ESCAPE As the North Korean and Chinese governments adopt increasingly harsh measures to prevent escape, the number of refugees arriving in South Korea has decreased. 2007 * k*k ķ 2.554 Between 2007 and 2011, higher numbers of 2008 소 AAAAAA 2803 refugees were arriving in South Korea with an avurage of 2,676 per year 2009 *** **** 2,914 2010 소 사 2402 2011 kk k *** 2.706 2012 소 A 사 1502 After Kim Jong Un took power at the end of 2011, harsher border security policies were implemented and refugees arriving in South Korea dropped by 2013 소 AAAA 1514 44% (from 2,706 to 1,502) RESETTLEMENT Where can refugees go after escaping? A majority go to South Korea while a few find resettlement opportunities in countries like the United States. SOUTH KOREA UNITED STATES More than 26,000 refugees have settled in South Korea since 1998. The government provides citizenship, housing assistance, job training and employment placement, and educational opportunities. The North Korean Human Rights Act of 2004 opened the United States as a resettlement destination for refugees. Since then, 167 North Koreans have resettled in the United States. REFUGEES BECOME A FORCE FOR CHANGE IN NORTH KOREA About half of refugees maintain contact with families in North Korea through underground networks and illegal mobile phones. An estimated $15 MILĻLION goes back to families in North Korea each year, improving lives and accelerating the country's bottom-up marketization. Refugees provide evidence that a.better life exists outside of North Korea. “North Koreans are fighting hard to survive. They have to force themselves to survive. Have hope to survive, but they cannot make it without help." Joseph Kim, North Korean Refugee North Korea is one of the least free places on earth. Share this message and join us in standing for North Koréan freedom. #ExposeNK LIBERTY IN NORTH KOREA THE BUSH INSTITUTE AT THE GEORGE W. BUSH PRESIDENTIAL CENTER SOURCES Liberty in North Korea, Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, Escape from North Korea: The Untold Story of Asia's Underground Railroad, Melanie Kirkpatrick (2012) Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in.the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (2014) Republic of Korea Ministry of Unification,

North Korean Refugees

shared by AndrewDavies on Jan 21
Those attempting to escape from North Korea have a unique set of challenges ahead of them. Although the reasons to flee are plenty, there are significant obstacles and consequences for refugees.


Human Rights
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