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USSR and the Eastern Bloc // Infographic by lab604

CO103 COBETCKNX COLIWAMUCTUYECKUX PECNYÁMNK SOVIET UNION HAMMER& SICKLE * СЕРП И МОЛОТ * UNICODE: U+262D A The two tools are symbols of the industrial proletariat and peasantry; placing them together symbolizes the industrial and agricultural workers. This VARIATIONS OF THE SYMBOL the ANGOLAN FLAG cog + machete + star USSR FLAG ФЛАГ СССР unity between COMMUNIST PARTY OF TURKEY LOGO cog wheel + hammer WORKER'S PARTY OF KOREA emblem originally MOSCOW was brush + sickle + hammer conceived during the Bolshevik revolution as a hammer on a plough, but it had the same meaning. MOCKBÁ, MOSKAU, MOSKVA, EZS7, EAZME F EAST GERMAN FLAG hammer + compasses ALBANIA (COMMUNIST) pickaxe + rifle ESTABLISHED: BEFORE 1147 POPULATION (1989): 8,769,117 TIME ZONE: MSD (UTC+04:00) COORDINATES: 55 45'N 37*37'E GOOGLE MAP: Www.BIT.LY/05SFLO Today, this still is a popular symbol amongst communists and other leftists worldwide. Although Western Europe permits public display without consequence, for several Eastern European countries it is the symbol of a "totalitarian and criminal ideology," and the public display along with other communist symbols such (Red Star) is considered a * COUNTRIES BANNING THE SYMBOL LITHUANIA (2008) http://bbc.in/it_soviet_ban (BBC) STATE EMBLEM * ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ГЕРБ * HUNGARY (Criminal Code 269/B.S 1993) http://bit.ly/criminal_code_hungary (PDF) LATVIA (Likums "Par sapulcēm, gājieniem un piketiem"2003) www.politika.lv/index.php?id=5122 POLAND (Kodeks karny 1997) http://bit.ly/criminal_code_pl (PDF) OFFICIAL NAMES * 0OMUMANÜHBIE HA3BAHNA * The Foreign Ministers of Lithuania, Latvia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and the Czech Republic called for an EU-wide ban on communist symbols in 2010. ARMENIAN Unurnulqudı Ufrußynli AZERI Cовет Иттифагы BELARUSIAN Cabeuki Caio3 ESTONIAN Nõukogude Liit GEORGIAN GSdgmmd zdgdo6o KAZAKH Cоветтер Одагы KYRGYZ Cоветтер Союз LATVIAN Padomju Savienība LITHUANIAN Tarybų Sąjunga MOLDAVIAN Униуня Советикэ RUSSIAN Coветский Союз ТАJIK Иттиҳоди Шўравӣ TURKMEN COBET COIO3bl UKRAINIAN Paдянський Союз UZBEK Cовет Иттифоки ADOPTED IN 1923 criminal offence. Some anthropologists argued that the symbol was actually Russian Orthodox, used by the Communists to fill the religious needs of a new "state religion." THE SYMBOL CAN BE SEEN AS A PERMUTATION OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX TWO-BARRED CROSS (THE PATRIARCHAL CROSS), A VARIANT OF THE CHRISTIAN CROSS, THE RELIGIOUS SYMBOL OF CHRISTIANITY. SHORT INTRODUCTION КРАТКОЕ ВВЕДЕНИЕ * POPULATION&RUSSIANS * HACENEHNEN PYCCKME * RUSSIAN SOVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC of Soviet Officially the Socialist Union Socialist Republic, Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. POP: 147,386,000 5,6% RUŠSIANS 12. 9,5% RUŠSIANS Republics constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991. The USSR had a single-party political system dominated by the Communist Party until Although nominally a union of Soviet republics (15 in all after 1956) with the capital in Moscow, it was actually a highly centralized state with a planned economy. The Russian Revolution of 1917 brought the downfall of the Russian Empire. was a 6. AZERBAIJAN SVEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC POP.: 7,029,000 TURKMEN STVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBL POP: 3,534,000 HALLVNI3413IAOS 1. 81,3% RUSSIANS 1,6% RUŠSIANS 13. ARMENIAN SOVIET FEDERTIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIE POP.: 3,283,000 1990. 7. The USSR and it's Eastern European satellites engaged in the Cold War, which it ultimately lost in the face of economic 6,3% RUŚSIANS GEORGIAN SOVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC POP. 5,449,000 LATVIAN 14. snVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC POP 2.681.DDD 34,0% RUSSIANS troubles and both UKRAINIAN 2. 22,1% RUSSIANS SOVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBL domestic and foreign political unrest. In the late 1980s, the last TAJIK 8. POP. 51,704,000 SOCIALIST REPUBLIC 7,6% RUŠSIANS Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev 15. 30,3% ESTONIAN tried to reform the state with his policies of perestroika and glasnost, but USSR collapsed and was formally dissolved in December 1991. The Russian Federation RUSSIANS SOTEDERATIVE TREPUBL POP: 1,573,000 8,3% 3. UZBEK RUŚSIANS SOCIALIST REPUBLIC POP: 19,906,000 13,0% RUSSIANS After ensuing Russian Civil War, the Soviet Union was founded in the Bolsheviks won the 9. MOLDAVIAN SOVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC POP.: 4,341,000 According to data from the 1989 Soviet census, the population of the Soviet Union was 70% East Slavs, 12% Turkic peoples, and all other ethnic groups below 10%. Alongside the atheist majority of 60% there were sizable minorities of Russian Orthodox followers December 1922 with the merger of Soviet Federative assumed its rights and obligations. the Russian 4. 37,8% RUSŠIANS 10. KIRGHIZ SOVIET FEDERATIVE enCIALIST BEPUBLI 21,5% RUSSIANS COMMUNIST PARTY POP.: 4,291,000 KAZAKH SOVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC (approx. 20%) and Muslims (approx. 15%). Most of the population used the Cyrillic alphabet (near 90%) and spoke the Russian language (near 70%). * KOMMYHNCTNYECKAA NAPTUA * POP. 16,538,000 The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the only legal, ruling political party in the Soviet Union and one of the largest communist organizations in the world. It emerged from the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic tolerated opposition. Its 13,2% RUSŠIANS 11. 9,4% RUŚSIANS no 5. BYELORUSSIAN SOVIET FEDERATIVE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC POP: 10.200,000 organization was subdivided into parties constituent Soviet republics as well as the mass youth organization, Komsomol. The party was also the LITHUANIAN MERATIVE ALIST REPUBLIC POP.. 3,690,000 communist of the The Soviet Union was one of the world's most ethnically diverse countries, with more than 100 distinct national ethnicities living within its borders. Besides Soviet Union nations, other ethnic groups that lived in USSR include Abkhaz, Adyghes, Aleuts, Assyrians, Avars, Bashkirs, Bulgarians, Buryats, Chechens, Chinese, Chuvash, Cossacks, Evenks, Finns, Gagauz, Germans, Greeks, Hungarians, Ingushes, Inuit, Jews, Kalmyks, Karakalpaks, Karelians, Kets, Koreans, Lezgins, Maris, Mongols, Mordvins, Nenetses, Ossetians, Poles, Roma, Romanians, Tats, Tatars, Tuvans, Udmurts, and Yakuts. RELIGION * РЕЛИГИЯ driving force of the Third International (Comintern). Labour Party, under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin. The party led the 1917 October Revolution that The party ceased to exist after the coup d'état attempt in 1991 and was succeeded by the Communist Party overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and established the world's first socialist state. Given of the Russian Federation in Russia the central role under the and the communist parties of the now independent former Soviet republics. ATHEISTS (ESTIMATED) OTHER: PAGAN, SHAMANISM, BUDDHISM, HUNDU, TAOISM... RUSSIAN ORTHODOX PROTESTANT, GEORGIAN & ARMENIAN ORTHODOX, ROMAN CATHOLIC JEWISH ISLAM Constitution of the Soviet Union, the party controlled all tiers government in the Soviet Union and LESS THAN of 60% 20% 15% 7% 1% LAIKA ЛАЙКА -SPUTNIK-1 KEY FIGURES * KAIOYEBBIE NIOAN Laika, literally meaning "Barker" was a Soviet * СПУТНИК-1* Space Dog that became the first animal to orbit the Sputnik (Satellite in Russian) was the first artificial satellite to be put into Earth's orbit. It was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on 4 October Earth - as well as the first animal to die in orbit." VLADIMIR ILYICH LENIN ВЛАДИМИР ИЛЬИЧ ЛЕНИН 1870-1924 NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV НИКИТА ХРУЩЕВ * 1894-1971 1957, and was the first in a series of satellites collectively known as the Sputnik program. • BEGIN ORIENTATION FOR RETRO BURN AT B000 KM FROM LANDING SITE AT 9:51 MT Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov in the town of Simbirsk. He was deeply influenced by the revolutionary political views of his older brother, Alexander Ulyanov, • RETRO BURN AND INSTRUMENT MODULE • FINAL STAGE SHUT DOWN, ORBIT INSERTION AT 676 SEC. He led the USSR during part of the Cold War serving as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and as a Premier. Khrushchev was responsible for the partial de-Stalinization of the USSR, for backing the progress of the early Soviet space program and several relatively liberal reforms. He was removed from power in 1964 by his party colleagues and replaced with Leonid Brezhnev as First Secretary and Alexei Kosygin as Premier. SEPARATION AT 10:25 MT BEGIN REENTRY AT 10:35 MT The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the Space Race within the Cold War. who introduced him to the ideas of ATCH COSMONAUT EJECTS 2 SEC LATER AT 10:56 MT 7000 M Karl Marx. Lenin was a Russian revolutionary, economic philosopher, creator of the Soviet Communist Party, leader of the 1917 October Revolution, and founder of the USSR. As head of the Bolsheviks - JETTISON CORE STAGE. FINAL STAGE IGNITION 300 SEC author, theorist, lawyer, political FIRST MAN IN ŠPACE ПЕРВЫЙ ЧЕЛОВЕК В КОСМОСЕ • JETTISON SHROUD AT 156 SEC. The launch ushered in .JETTISON HATCH AT 4000 M AND DEPLOY BRAKING CHUTE new he led the Red Army to victory in the Russian Civil War, before establishing the world's first officially socialist state. As a theorist, his extensive political, military,. technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the Space Age. Nikita Khrushchev: Between black & white by Russia Today: * http://bit.ly/khrushchev C.CC theoretical and philosophical ATE STRAP-ON STAGES AT 119 SEC contributions to Marxism produced Leninism. Lenin: Revolutionary - a documentary about Vladimir Lenin: *http://bit.ly/lenin-video EPARATES FROM SEAT AT 4000 M . DEPLOY MAIN CHUTE AT 2600 M JOSEPH STALIN гИОСИФ ВИССАРИОНОВИЧ СТАЛИН 1878-1953 • LAUNCH FROM BAIKONUR KOSMOOROME AT LENINSK AT :07 MT COSMONAUT LANDS IN SARATOV REGION AT 11.05 MT (EST.) Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was the Premier of the Soviet Union. He was among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who brought about the October Revolution and had held the position of first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from The first human spaceflight was accomplished on April 12, 1961 by Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. The only countries to have independent human spaceflight capability are Russia and China. As of 2011, human spaceflights are being actively launched by the Soyuz programme conducted by the Russian Federal Space Agency and the Shenzhou program conducted by the China National Space Administration. SPUTNIK-2 LAUNCH MIKHAIL GORBACHEV *МИХАИЛ ГОРБАЧЕВ 1931- 1922 until his death in 1953. While LEONID BREZHNEV *ЛЕОНИД БРЕЖНЕВ- 1906-1982 He is a former Soviet statesman, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as formally the office of the General Secretary was elective and was not initially regarded as the top position in the Soviet state, Lenin's death in 1924, Stalin managed to consolidate more power in his hands, putting down all opposition groups within the party. CHERNOBYL DISASTER * KATACTPO@A YEPHO6BUTA * the last head of state of the USSR He was the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982. His 18 year term was one of the longest, second only to that of Stalin. During Brezhnev's rule, the global influence of the USSR grew dramatically, in part because of the expansion of the Soviet military during this time, but his tenure as leader has often been criticized for marking the beginning of a period of economic stagnation, overlooking serious economic problems which eventually led to the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991. He was the only general secretary in the history of the Soviet Union to have been born during the Communist rule. A nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine which was under the direct jurisdiction of the central Moscow's authorities. An explosion and fire released large quantities of radioactive contamination into the atmosphere, which spread over much of Western USSR and Europe. It is considered the worst nuclear power plant accident in history, and is one of only two classified as a level 7 event on the International Nuclear Event Scale (the other being the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster). The battle to contain the contamination and avert a greater catastrophe ultimately involved over 500,000 workers and cost an estimated 18 billion rubles, crippling the Soviet economy. This included Leon Trotsky, the principal critic of Stalin among early Soviet leaders, who was exiled from the Soviet Union in 1929. Instead, Stalin's idea of socialism in one In 1990, Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for "his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community". Together with Bill Clinton and Sophia Loren, he was awarded the 2004 Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children. country became the primary line of the Soviet politics. Stalin speech - November 7, 1941 with English subtitles: * http://bit.ly/stalin-speech Mikhail Gorbachev resigns: * http://bit.ly/gorb-res Leonid Brezhnev's visit to Fidel Castro footage by Iconic: *http://bit.ly/brezhnev-castro A satellite state is a political SOVIET SATELLITE STATES TETRIS HIGH SCORE 17000* that is formally independent, but under heavy political and economic influence or control by another country. Other such terms include puppet state and neo-colony. * ГОСУДАРСТВО-САТЕЛЛИТ * * ТЕТРИС + Tetris is a puzzle video game The objective of the game is to originally programmed by Alexey Pajitnov by moving each one sideways in the Soviet Union. It was and rotating it by 90 degree released on June 6, 1984, while units, with the aim of creating a was working for the horizontal line of ten blocks Dorodnicyn Computing Centre of without gaps. When such a line the Academy of Science of the is created, it disappears, and any USSR in Moscow. He derived its block above the deleted line will name from the Greek numerical fall. NEXT LINE SATELLITE STATES IN EUROPE designed and manipulate these tetrominoes, EAST At the end of WWII, most Eastern and Central European countries were occupied by the Soviet Union. USSR remained in GERMANY POP.: 16,111,000 he SOCIALIST PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF MOSCOW ALBANIA POP: 3,072,000 these countries after the war's prefix Pajitnov's favorite sport. tetra- and tennis, end. Through a coalition governments including Communist parties, and then a forced liquidation of coalition members unlinked by the Soviets, Stalinist systems were established in each country. Stalinists gained control of existing governments, police, press and radio outlets in these countries. series of PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF PEOPLĖ'S REPUBLIC OF POLAND POP.: 23,930,000 HUNGARY POP.: 10,397,959 PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA POP.: 8,990,055 PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF The SFR of Yugoslavia is ROMANIA SOCIALIST FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF POP.: 23,102,000 sometimes also referred to as a YUGOSLAVIA CZEOCIALISVAK REPUBLIC POP: 15,600,000 Soviet satellite, though it broke POP: 23,724,919 from the Soviet Union in the Tito-Stalin split and subsequently helped to form the Non-Aligned Movement. The People's Republic of Albania, under the leadership of Stalinist Enver Hoxha, broke ties with the Soviet Union in 1960 following the Soviet de-stalinization. 1948 MONGOLIAN PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC POP: 2.318,000 GO PLAY! * www.tetris.com SATELLITE STATES IN ASIA DEMOCRATIC AFGHANISTAN POP: 15,395,716 THE COLD WAR * ХОЛОДНАЯ ВОЙНА * EUROPE DURING THE COLD WAR The Cold War was the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World - primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies - and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States and its allies from roughly 1946 to 1991. Although the chief military forces never engaged in a major battle with each other, they expressed the conflict through military coalitions, strategic conventional force deployments, extensive aid to states deemed vulnerable, proxy wars, espionage, propaganda, conventional and nuclear arms races, appeals to neutral nations, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race. NIXON&GORBACHEV MEET WARSZAW PACT While Stalin's death in 1953 RadioFreeEurope RadioLiberty slightly relaxed tensions, the situation in Europe remained an uneasy armed truce.[111] The Soviets, who had already created a network of mutual assistance treaties in the Eastern Bloc by 1949,[112] established a formal alliance therein, the Warsaw Pact, in 1955. Along with the broadcasts of the BBC and the VOA to Eastern Europe, a major propaganda effort begun in 1949 - Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, dedicated to bringing about the peaceful demise of the Communist system in the Eastern Bloc. RFE was a product of some of the most prominent architects of America's early Cold War strategy. E ASTERN BLOC (WARSZAW PACT HUNGARIAN UPRISING YUGOSLAVIA (NON ALIGNED) The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 occurred shortly after Khrushchev arranged the removal of Hungary's Stalinist leader Mátyás Rákosi. In response to a popular uprising, the new regime formally disbanded the secret police, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and pledged to re-establish free elections. The Soviet army invaded. Thousands were arrested, imprisoned and deported to the Soviet Union, and approximately 200,000 fled Hungary in the chaos. Hungarian leader Imre Nagy and others were executed following secret trials. DDR CLOSING BORDER HUNGARIAN UPRISING OF 1956. PREPARING THE BERLIN WALL BERLIN WALL PHOTO COLLECTION PRAGUE SPRING (PRAŽSKÉ JAR0) * http://bit.ly/bw-group In 1968, a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia called the Prague Spring took place. It included program of liberalizations, which described increasing freedom of the press, freedom of speech and freedom of movement, along with an economic emphasis on consumer goods, the possibility of a multiparty government, limiting the power of the secret police and potentially withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact. THE RISE AND FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL The Berlin Wall was a barrier constructed by East Germany starting on August 13TH 1961, that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and THE East Berlin. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls which circumscribed a wide area that contained anti-vehicle In answer to the Prague Spring, the Soviet army invaded Czechoslovakia with support from most of their Warsaw Pact allies. The invasion created a wave of emigration, estimating 70,000 fleeing initially, with eventually reaching the total of 300,000. The invasion sparked intense protests from Yugoslavia, Romania and China and from Western European communist parties. trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses. INVASION OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA BRATISLAVA, ŠAFARIKOVO NAM. INVASION OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA The Soviet-dominated Eastern Bloc officially claimed that the wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany. PRAHA, T-62 IN PRAGUE The Berlin Wall finaly fell on November 9th 1989, paving the way for reunification of Germany which was formally concluded on October 3rd 1990. DISSOLUTION OF THE SOVIET UNION * PACNAA COBETCKOFO COI03A * * CHRONOLOGY OF INDEPENDENCE DECLARATIONS * Disintegration of the federal political structures and central government of the USSR resulted in the independence of all 15 republics of the Soviet Union between The broader result of the dissolution was AZERBAIJAN- August 30th, 1991 KYRGYZSTAN- August 31st, 1991 UZBEKISTAN – September 1st, 1991 TAJIKISTAN – September 9th, 1991 LATVIA (de facto) – August 21st, 1991 ARMENIA – September 21st, 1991 TURKMENISTAN- October 16th, 1991 KAZAKHSTAN- December 16th, 1991 RUSSIA-December 25th, 1991 (As successor state upon dissolution of USSR) LITHUANIA - March 11th, 1990 GEORGIA- April 9th, 1991 LATVIA (de iure) - May 4th, 1990 ESTONIA - August 20th, 1991 the fall of Communism as a global ideology and the end of the Cold War. Multi-ethnic proved particularly vulnerable to disintegration during this time - the Soviet Union was but one example of three such states that collapsed in Europe as a result of the fall of communism, the others being the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia, which broke up in a in 1991-1992, and Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, which had its peaceful velvet divorce in 1993. communist federal states March 11th 1990 and December 25th 1991. The direct cause of the dissolution was failed attempt by Mikhail Gorbachev to revitalize the Soviet economy through a process of limited political liberalisation (glasnost/perestroika) within the confines of a totalitarian communist one-party UKRAINE- August 24th, 1991 BELARUS- August 25th, 1991 MOLDOVA- August 27th, 1991 series of wars state. VERSION 1.0/AUG-2011 | PUBLISHED BY LAB604 | DATA AND TEXT SOURCE: WIKIPEDIA PUBLISHED UNDER CREATIVE COMMONS - ATTRIBUTION-NONCOMMERCIAL CC BY-NC LICENCE CC BY NC lab604 www.LAB604.NET | WWW.TWITTER.COM/LAB604 | WwW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/LAB604 WESTER N

USSR and the Eastern Bloc // Infographic by lab604

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Key facts, history, people and culture of USSR or the Soviet Union, uprisings in Eastern Europe and the dissolution of Union.

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