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From Rags to Copy Machines: The Evolution of Paper Making

FROM RAGS TO COPY MACHINES The evolution of paper making as we know it Before paper there was papyrus, a plant that was once abundant in Egypt. Papyrus was used by ancient Egyptians, Romans, and Greeks to make a thick paper-like material. 105 CE China T'sai Lun is credited as developing paper around 105 CE. Early Chinese paper was thicker and tougher than modern-day paper. 字母 早上 好 协 好 早 Early Chinese papermakers used bamboo to make paper. 610 CE Korea and Japan In Japan and Korea, paper is still made by hand, much as it was traditionally. People use the fresh bast (inner bark) fibers of the mulberry tree, which is called kozo in Japanese. Once the long, uncut fibers are cooked, papermakers beat them and repeatedly immerse in a mold to create a multi-layer fiber mat. Asia, Middle East, and Europe Knowledge of papermaking then spread from eastern Asian countries to Central Asia and on to Tibet and India. It later spread to Morocco, then on to Europe in the 1000s, namely Spain and Sicily. Lacking fresh fibers, Arab papermakers predominantly pulped recycled rags to produce paper. The Arab papermakers used screens made of reeds to filter the pulp. This produced thin sheets of paper that were 'coated' with starch paste. When papermaking reached Europe, the Roman Catholic Church insisted people use parchment and vellum, which were both made from animal skins. 1100 Italy By 1100, Italy was the papermaking hub of Europe. From the 13th century on, Italian papermakers at Fabriano and Amalfi worked to advance the Arabian process. 1300 Italian papermakers improved the technique by: Developing the stamping mill, which was used to produce pulp more efficiently Using water to power machinery Speeding up the drying process with the paper press and drying sheets on ropes Creating wire mesh molds 1600 Germany By the end of the 16th century, there were 190 mills in Germany. Ulmann Stromer, a German long-distance trader and factory owner, established the first permanent paper mill north of the Alps. x2 Up to 9 reams of paper (about 4,500 sheets) could be produced over the course of a typical 13-hour workday. In 1853, German inventor Friedrich Keller developed a machine that ground wood into pulp. This marked a significant change in papermaking because rags were no longer necessary. %3D %3D 1700 France French chemist Claude-Louis Bertholett invented the chemical bleaching of pulp in 1785. Up until this point, paper was a pale brownish color, which made it harder to read the printing. 1900 Industrial Papermaking Worldwide During the 19th and 20th centuries, papermaking became fully automated. Flat screen and cylinder machines, which could continuously fill wire molds, were improved and eventually included a dryer. Modern-Day PAPERMAKING Today, paper can be made from: Cotton Linen Flax Grain stacks, such as wheat Silk Wood pulp Turning Timber to Pulp to Paper Timber De-barking Chipping Machine 000 Chemical Pulping Process Screening & Cleaning Hydrapulper Mechanical Pulping Process ПП Screening & Cleaning Paper Making Machine Putting Pen to Paper: THE FACTS Roughly 8 trees produce between 1,000 and 2,000 pounds of paper. 1 lb 1 lb 1 lb 1 lb 1 Ib A typical 500-sheet packet of paper weighs 5 pounds. That's 10,000 to 20,000 sheets per tree. Recycled paper is made from a pulp of mixed, recycled papers that is then washed and refined. In 2010, Americans recovered 63.5% of U.S. paper. That's an 89% increase in recovery since 1990. Recycled paper production creates 74% less air pollution and 35% less water pollution than virgin paper production. North Americans consume more paper per capita (upwards of 500 lbs. annually) than anyone else on earth. How Many Trees Are Needed to Make A Paper Product 1 Ton of Paper Product Uses How Many Trees? 4 Computer Paper 24 Glossy Magazine Paper 15 ABADA SABABABA Newsprint 12 Sales Catalog Paper SABABAGA From papyrus to wood pulp, paper-and the way we've made it-has come a long way. > > > > > > > > > Designed by: Ghergich & Co. Brought to you by: A small part of your job is 100% of ours.

From Rags to Copy Machines: The Evolution of Paper Making

shared by Ghergich on Mar 15
The evolution of paper is very impressive! In 105 CE, Egypt used a plant called papyrus for paper, and jump to modern day where papermaking is fully automated. Learn about the evolution of paper from ...




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