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Old Testament Covenants

MAJOR COVENANTS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT REFERENCE TYPE PARTICIPANT DESCRIPTION COVENANTS Royal Grant Made with ighteous (6.9) Noah (and his descendantsand every living thing on earth-all ife thatis catastrophe, thecovenant'sign" (9:13,17) subject to human jurisdic tion) An unconditlonal divine promisenever to destroy all earthlylife with samenatural NOAHIC Ge 98-17 being the ainbow in the storm doud Made with "righteous" his faith was "cedited... to him as righteous ness,"v. 6) Abram (and his symbolically enacted it (v. 17; see note there) descendants, v. 16) AB RAHAMIC Ge 159-21 Royal (land) Gant An unconditionaldivine promiseto fulfil the grant of the land; a self-maledi ctory ath A AB RAHAMIC Ge 17 Suze rain-vassal Made with Abaham as patriachal A conditional divine pledge to be Abraham's God and the God of his des cendants (compae "as for me,"v. 4;"as foryou,"v. 9; thecondition: total consecration to the lord as symbolized by B head of his household cicumcision SINAITIC Ex 19-24 Suze ain-vassal Made with Israel as the descendants A condional dine pled ge to be lsrael's God of Abraham, kaac and Jacob and as (as theproector and the guarantor of Isael's thepeoplethe Lord had rdeemed blessed destiny); the condition: kael's btal consecration to the Lod as his people (his kingdom) who live by his ruleand serve his frombondage to an earthlypower purposes in history PHINE HAS Nu 25:10-13 Royal Grant Made with the zealous priest Phinehas An unconditional divine promiseto maintain the family of Phinehas in a las ting pries thood" (v. 13; impli atly a pledgeto isael to provide it forever with a faithful priesthood) Made with faithful King David a fter his devotion to God as srael's king and the Lord's anointed vassal had DAVIDIC 25a 7:5-16 Royal Grant An unconditional divine promiseto establish and maintain the Davidic dynasty on the thone of Israel (impliitly a pledge to Israel) to provide the nation forever with a godly king like David and through that dynasty to do what he had donethough David-bring krael into rest in the promised land (1 4:20-21; 5:3-4) cometo spedal expression (v. 2) Jer 31:31-34 Royal Grant Promised to rebellious brael as the peopleare aboutto beexpelled from Israel to forgive the people's sins and establish thepromised land in actualization of his relati onship wi th his people on anew basis themostsevere covenantcurse NEW An unconditional divine promiseto unfaifhful bywiting his law"on theirhearts"(v. 33)-a (Lev 2627-39; Dt 28:36-37,45-68) covenantof pure grace MAJORTYPES OF ROYAL COVENANTS/TREATIES IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST ROYAL GRANT (UNCONDITIONAL) PARITY SUZERAIN- VASSAL (CONDITIONAL) A king's grant fof land orsome other benefit) to a loyalservant for faith ful on exceptional service. The grant was normally or atleast to mutual respectfor pepetual and unconditional, but the servant's heirs benefted from it only as they Participants called each other continued their father's loyalty and service. "brother."(Compare Ge 21:27; (Compare 1Sa &:14; 22:7:276; Est&:1.) A covenant between equals, A covenant regulating the relafionship be tween a great king and binding them to mutual friendship one of his sub ject kings. The great king daimed absoluteright of sovereignty, demanded total loyalty and service (the vassal must "love"his suzerain) and pledged protectfion of the subject's realm and dynasty, conditional on thevassal's faith fulness and loyalty to him. Thevassal pled ged absolute loyalty to his suzerain-whateverservice his suzerain demanded-and each other's spheres and interests. 2631; 31:44-54; 1KI 5: 12; 15:19; 20:32-34; Am 1:9.) exdusivereliance on thesuzerain's protection. Particpants called each other lord" and "servant"or "lather"and "son." (Compare Jos 9:6,8; Eze 17:13-18; Hos 12:1.) Commi tmentsmade in these covenants were accompanied by self-maledictoryoaths (made orally, ceremonially or both). The gods werecalled on to witness thecovenants and implement the cusesof the oaths if the covenants were violated.

Old Testament Covenants

shared by zbibleteam on Sep 17
Understand the basics of the major Old Testament Covenants as well as the 3 major types of Royal Covenants and treaties in the Ancient Near East. Chart from NIV First-Century Study Bible


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