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60 Major Developments in Cosmetic Surgery

A A HISTORY PLASTIC SURGERY Plastic surgery isn't all botox, boobs and bum lifts; and it isn't such a new fashion. The reshaping of body tissue for reconstructive and aesthetic purposes dates as far back as ancient Egypt, although it is fair to say that a lot has changed since then! -----. ARTIFICIAL CRANIAL DEFORMATION 45000 ВС Predating written history, neanderthal skulls show evidence of intentional cranial deformations, TOOTH DRILLING a practice which continued up until the early 20th century. 5000 ВС Primitive dentists drilled perfect holes into the teeth of live patients. AMPUTATION & PROSTHETICS Ancient India 3,500- 1,500 BC The Vedas records that the leg of Queen Vishpla was amputated in battle. After healing the wound, an iron leg was fitted. 1600 ВС 20th Century FOOT BINDING Practiced in China until the 20th century, bound feet were considered a feminine ideal --- FIRST EVIDENCE OF AESTEHTIC SURGERY Ancient Egy pt of beauty, ideally only 3 inches in length. Ramses Il's mummy's nose was surgically altered to ensure that his most prominent feature would be recognizable in the afterlife. ---- FIRST CHEMICAL PEELS Ancient Egy pt First use of lactic acid from sour milk for skin rejuvination. Considered an early version of modern day 'Chemical Peels'. FIRST PLASTIC SURGERY Ancient India 600BC Sushruta, recorded the "attached flap" method of plastic surgery in his text, Sushruta Samhita. It described - FIRST OTOPLASTY ---- The reconstruction of the the reconstruction of the nose by folding over a piece of the cheek or forehead and stitching it down. deformed or external ear. The Ancient India 600BC ancient Indian practice is rooted in the Indian medical tradition named Ayurveda. Susrutha Samhita is one of the formative ayurvedic texts. Listen up- Ayurveda was a holistic medical approach FIRST BREAST REDUCTION Ancient Rome 100BC and stressed the use of natural medicine. Cornelius Celsus's text De re medicina describes the surgery on an obese man whose breasts were "unsightly" and "shameful." Ancient Rome 100BC SCAR REMOVAL Poet Martial suggests that some slaves had their brands removed. Soldiers would remove scars on CIRCUMCISION FOR AESTHETICS Ancient Rome 100BC their back that indicated cowardice in battle. Roman men had this procedure performed to look more attractive at the public baths. LIP EAR & NOSE RESHAPING Ancient Rome 25BC Aulus Cornelius Celsus writes De Medicinia, which outlines procedures for reshaping lips, DROOPING EYES AND NEW NOSES ears and noses. AD129 - AD216 One of the most important physicians in history. His discoveries of how the body worked continued the human fascination with the body. Galen was known to "cure" drooping eyes. DECLINE IN SURGERIES The Middle Ages An increased belief in magic saw a decline in surgeries of any kind. Blood spilling was seen as pagan. REBIRTH The Renaissance Instead of surgeons carrying out procedures, it was now barbers. Short back and sides and a new nose please! SKIN GRAFT ATTEMPTS The Renaissance Surgeons started to use animal flesh for skin grafts. They never lasted long as the flesh shrivelled up and fell off! IMPERIAL SURGERY Islamic text entitled "Imperial Surgery" was written by Serafeddin Sabuncuoglu. The text detailed methods of plastic surgery from which our 15TH Century --- SKIN GRAFTS modern methods are derived. Included 1460 In Germany Heinrich Von Pfalzpaint, a Knight of the Teutonic Order, used skin grafts to repair battle injuries. material on gynecomastia, maxillofacial surgery and eyelid surgery. FIRST TEXT BOOK 1597 First plastic surgery text book, De curtorum chirugiau, released by Gasparo Tagliacozzi. Considered the father of modern plastic surgery, Tagliacozzi cited fighting and the spread of syphilis as increasing the need for reconstructive surgery. CLEFT PALATE SURGERY Cleft lip and palate are variation of a type of clefting congenital deformity caused by abnormal facial development during gestation. It leaves an unsightly fissure in the upper lip, extending to the nose. The Polish set to 1781 FIRST SUCCESFUL SKIN GRAFT _2 Swiss surgeon Reverdin makes a success of the previously tried and work as early as 1781. failed skin graft. How? Using very thin le pieces of epidermis. What? Basically, a small skin graft meant the more rapid healing of granulating wounds. One piece at a time. . TECHNICAL TERMS COINED 1818 As plastic surgery became popular, Karl Ferdinand Graefe decided we needed specific terminology; and so 'Plastic surgery' and' rhinoplasty' were born! CLEFT PALATE SURGERY John Peter Mettauer becomes the first notable plastic surgeon in the 1827 United States for his work of cleft FIRST BOOK PUBLISHED palates. In his paper, Lister outlined that before to kill surgery, use carbolic acid, he drew on the work 1827 germs of people before him, as every scientists does, including Galen (we mentioned earlier) and some medieval surgeons. FIRST EAR PINNING ---- Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach reported the first surgical correction of prominent ears by the excision of excess cartilage. 1845 ATTEMPT AT BREAST ENLARGEMENT NOSE JOB EXPERIMENTS 1890 Doctors injected paraffin into breasts to enlarge them this was Rhinoplasty is plastic surgery on the nose. It started with the English, continued by the Germans. Joseph Constantine Carpue, London surgeon, published his Account of Two Successful Operations for Restoring a Lost Nose (1815). Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach publishes Die Operative Chirurgie (Operative Surgery, 1845), which became the foundation plastic surgical text." abandoned as the chemical would leak into the rest of the body. 1892 LIP PLUMPING 1900 The first attempt at lip plumping was made, with surgeons attempting to augment lips with parrafin unsuccesfully. FIRST BOOK DEDICATED SOLELY TO PLASTIC SURGERY 1907 Dr Charles Miller penned the first text specifically written on cosmetic entitled "The Correction of surgery, Featural Imperfections" FIRST PLASTIC SURGERY HOSPITAL 1917 Here more than I1,000 operations were performed on over 5,000 men - mostly soldiers with facial injuries, usually from gunshot wounds. LIPOSUCTION Charles Dujarier was the first to attempt modern liposuction. Due the a significant mortality rate it did not gain popularity. 1920 BODY CONTOURING AND BREAST ENGLARGEMENT Doctors moved fat from other 1920s 30s parts of a woman's body to the breasts as an early form of breast --- GENDER REASSIGNMENT SURGERY impant surgery. The first attempt at gender reassignment surgery is performed in Germany unsuccesfully. Lili Elbe was an intersex person who presented as male. She received a pioneering uterus transplant, which likely caused of her death. 1930 AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS IS FOUNDED 1931 Foundation brings a new found respect to the practice of plastic surgery. ADVANCEMENT OF SURGICAL TECHNIQUES The second world war saw the WWI emergence of new plastic surgery techniques such as rebuilding entire limbs MARKETIΙNG POST WAR Doctors started marketing plastic surgery as cosmetic surgery to middle class, affluent women. Doctors need new patients post war. Terms like'spare tyre' and 'bat wings' are coined to convince women they need surgery. FIRST FEMALE TO MALE GENDER REASSIGNMENT ---. Laura Dillon, a British Physician, 1946 became Michael Dillon the first trans man to undergo Phalloplasty PERFORMED FIRST SUCCESSFUL MALE TO FEMALE GENDER REASSIGNMENT 1951 THE BIRTH OF THE BOOB JOB Robert Cowell became Roberta in Not strictly true, but it was in 1961 that American plastic surgeons this surgery. Gilles used the flap technique which remained standard for 40 years Thomas Cronin and Frank Gerow 1960 developed the first silicone breast prosthesis, filled with silicone gel: soon after women were filling their breast tissue with the stuff. FIRST GLUTEAL IMPLANTS 1969 Trialled by Dr RJ Bartel using breast implants. The subcutaneous implants were too detecable. FIRST CALF IMPLANT Dr Lloyd N Carlsen performed the first calf implant. There were no implants of the correct shape so they used carved silastic foam. 1972 FIRST CHEEK AND CHIN IMPLANTS 1972 Tessier published his success with bone grafts in cranial reconstruction.This procedure ALLOPLASTIC CHEEK AND CHIN IMPLANTS had limitations and risks for Gonzalez-Ulloa was the first rejection and resorption 1974 surgeon to use alloplastic implants in patients successfully. FIRST REFINED LIPSUCTION TECHNIQUE 1974 Arpad and Giorgio Fischer made liposuction safer with their invention, the cannula. It allowed them to tunnel between major blood vessels, reducing several risks RST COLLAGEN LIP INJECTIONS Bovine collagen was made available as a lip filler. It was popular even 1980 with short terms affects and the potential allergic reactions. ILLOUZ METHOD OF LIPSUCTION 1982 Fourner and Ilouz popularized then "wet technique", adding saline to the fat. They introduced a local anaesthetic and encouraged compression of the treated areas. SUB-MUSCULAR GLUTEAL IMPLANTS Dr Jose Robles introduced an implant that could be placed between muscle layers. It was undectable but the surgery was too complex. 1984 PECTORAL IMPLANTS 1988 First silicone pectoral implants are used to aid patients with deformities PECTORAL IMPLANTS Aiache develops first cosmetic procedure to provide natural looking implants, which then takes off. 1991 INTRAMUSCULAR GLUTEAL IMPLANTS 1996- 2004 Implants placed in the muscle tissue became popular thanks to Dr Rafeal Vergara. In 2004 Dr Raul Gonzalez published a new intramuscular technique. COSMETIC SURGERY PROVING POPULAR. More than 2 million cosmetic operations carried out in the US. 1997 VAGINAL REJUVENATION BECOMES POPULAR 2000 PRESENT Women are altering the outer appearance of their vulvas, making the cervixes tighter, and some are even electing to have their hymen FIRST USE OF BOTOX This technically toxic filler is useful for freezing facial muscles and reducing frown lines. 2002 reconstructed. EXTRAOCULAR IMPLANT (EYE JEWELS) 2002 Doctors at the NIIOS began implanting jewels into the eye tissue via a minor surgical procedure. SUBFASCIAL GLUTEAL IMPLANTS Dr Jose de le Pena developed a technique for gluteal implants using textured implants sitting 2004 above the muscle. ------. FIRST FACE TRANSPLANT 2010 First full face transplant takes place on shooting victim in Spain. PIP BREAST IMPLANTS Discovery of PIP breast implants - silicone in these implants were 2010 intented for mattresses, not breasts. FIRST COSMETIC SURGERY BEAUTY PAGEANT 2011 FIRST REPORT OF 'DIMPLEPLASTY' SURGERY Linda Briggs holds Miss Cosmetic Surgery beauty pageant A woman gets her cheeks pierced to recreate Cheryl Cole's dimples. 2014 FIRST EXAMPLE OF A PROSTHETIC THAT ALLOWS YOU TO FEEL 2014 Man in Denmark has electrodes from his robotic hand attached to his nerves so he can feel the things he touches.

60 Major Developments in Cosmetic Surgery

shared by joe.shervell on Mar 06
Plastic Surgery hasn't always been about vanity. Most of the biggest developments have emerged from necessity. Whether it's war-injuries or illness, aesthetic reconstruction has been an important part...


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