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The Science of Weight Loss

The Science of Weight Loss What are the Most Effective Forms of Weight Loss? LEAST EFFECTIVE EFFECTIVE MOST EFFECTIVE Lifestyle Change Exercise Diet Only Only • Proper diet 95% • Requires A LOT of exercise! • For weight loss, The American College of Sports Medicine recommends: - 60 minutes of moderate exercise 5x per week • Moderate exercise of diets fail - most regain weight within 5 years. • Strong social support Lifestyle Change is Key to Weight Loss 1. Social support facilitates weight loss and lifelong healthy eating. 2. Seek family, friends, or a support group to get encouragement. 66 Ibs Average weight loss 5.5 years+ • Adequate sleep Average time weight stayed off In a study of 5000+ people who lost 1. Getting plenty of sleep can also support your weight loss and dieting efforts. 2. Exhaustion leads to harmful food choices. 3. Inadequate sleep reduces the body's ability to process insulin. Keys for Keeping Weight Off weight and kept it off more than fruits vegetables 1 year. (Nat'l Weight Control whole grains lean sources of protein: beans, white poultry, fish Registry) • Insulin is a hormone crucial to energy storage and use. - Poor insulin regulation may lead to: Frequent monitoring Regular exercise 90% of respondents average 1 hour of exercise per day, usually walking Weight gain Type 2 Other Diabetes health problems Losing Weight and Keeping It Off Lifestyle Changes of those who lost weight and kept it off 5+ years 0% Eat low-fat, low-calorie Monitor weight regularly Exercise 60 Don't skip breakfast minutes daily whole foods Maintain Catch "slips" before they turn into large regains Eat out less than Remember it gets easier. ("This is just how I live, and I like it.") consistent 3x per week eating pattern (no binges) Methods to Measure Weight Loss Success Least Effective: More Effective: Most Effective: Bathroom Scale Body Mass Index (BMI) Body Fat Scan • Simple weight measurement • Factors weight and height • Factors: Does not factor: Does not factor: 1%| 1%| | 1%| Age Height Changes in body composition Changes in body composition Age Changes in body composition Height • Monitors changes in body composition brought on by: Age Fitness level • May • May Dieting - reduces fat and muscle overestimate underestimate body fat in athletes and body fat in older folks Exercise - increases those with and those who muscle muscular builds have lost muscle • Tracks body composition, a critical aspect of healthy living - Decreased fat tissue, increased muscle mass Acceptable Body Fat Ranges 18-24% 25-32% Fitness Levels with Corresponding Body Fat % - Greatly improves the body's: Athletic High Fitness 40 40 30 30 20 20 Metabolic rate Bone density 10 10 (calorie burning) 16-13% 14 -20% 14-17% 21-24% Average Obese Aerobic Protection against 40 40 endurance diabetes, hypertension, 30 30 and heart disease 20 20 10 10 Success at long-term weight control | 18-24% : 25-32% 25%+ 33%+ High body fat levels increases risk of: Metabolic Syndrome • Diabetes • Heart Disease • Low Mortality Ways to Measure Body Composition (Fat and Muscle) Advantages Disadvantages • Quick • Easy • Inexpensive • Does not measure visceral fat such as deep belly fat, which carries high disease risk • Not effective for the very obese or very lean Skinfold Calipers Hydrostatic (Underwater) Weighing • Time-consuming • Expensive • Stressful for some • Accurate, consistent results Duel Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) • Very accurate • Can measures specific areas (like belly fat) • Quick • X-ray exposure is very low • Requires doctor's order • Usually available only in doctors' offices/hospitals • Expensive (about $200) • Widely available • Inexpensive (about $40 to buy) • Provides good week-to-week comparisons • Not as accurate as DEXA • Cannot measure specific areas (like belly fat) Bioelectrical Impedance Scale Weight Loss Statistics and Trends The typical American tries to lose weight 4x per year (highest number in 15 years). Did You Know? The weight loss industry is growing despite the recession. A Shift to Natural Weight Loss of Americans use 87% dietary supplements. Liposuction is declining: have visited a natural foods store 61% in the past year. • Natural & organic food sales grew 85% from 2005-2009. • The organic food industry has grown from $1 billion in 1990 to $24.8 billion in 2009. $58.6 $60.4 $60.9 Billion Billion Billion 354,015 301,882 245,138 2008 2009 2010 2000 2007 2008 Weight-Loss Programs: Rating Trends Based on Scientific Guidelines Are current trends consistent with science-based exercise and eating guidelines? • Guidelines established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and American College of Sports Medicine Jenny Craig Weight Watchers Exercise Guidelines Atkins Crossfit Pritikin About 60 minutes, at least 5 days weekly. Include aerobic activities like brisk walking, resistance training like weight lifting, and flexibility like stretching. If your doctor permits, include high-intensity aerobic activity 2 to 3 times weekly. Eating Guidelines Emphasize fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, and fat-free or low-fat dairy products. Eat moderate portions of fish, lean meat, poultry, nuts. Substantially limit saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars. For the majority of adult Americans, reduce sodium intake to no more than 1,500 mg daily. Reduce calorie intake by focusing on foods low in calorie density, that is, “foods with lots of water and fiber in them" writes the CDC, such as vegetables and fruits. These foods are high in volume (which fill you up and keep hunger at bay) but low in calories. Successful Science-Based Weight Loss Programs Short-Term Success Long-Term Success 64 patients with coronary artery disease used the Pritikin Program: Among those on the Pritikin Program: After 5 years, 85% had stayed with the program • 77% were still exercising regularly • Of those who started Pritikin with angina, 68% were angina-free. 69 Type 2 diabetics used the Pritikin Program: • Short-Term Success: • Long-Term Success: Men lost an average of Obese children lost an average average weight loss was 10 Ibs after 1 month most maintained weight loss 3+ years Women lost 7 Ibs in 3 weeks. 11 lbs in of 9 Ibs within With the Pritikin Program: 3 weeks. 2 weeks. • Participants lost 4 Ibs more on average • Reduced glucose levels 26% in the first month • Good program compliance Weight Loss Programs: Science VS. Hype Warning Signs a Program is More Hype than Science Diet excludes Focuses on Promises Proof is based Sounds too good food groups a single food, supplement or potion solely on super-quick weight loss to be true testimonials (no research provided) How to Spot a Scam Weight Loss Program Unusually Requires purchase of "proprietary" products Overly-promotional Relies on affordable "Before and After" pictures How to Spot a Healthy Weight Loss Program • Includes both eating and exercise guidelines 10% = used diet only 1% = used exercise only Of 5,000+ 89% = used diet and exercise success stories: • Eating plan focuses on whole, unrefined, and unprocessed foods • Stresses healthy living, not quick weight loss fruits vegetables whole grains • Exercise plan includes aerobic, stretching, and resistance training • Results are proven and published in peer-reviewed medical journals Sources: %24 CHO

The Science of Weight Loss

shared by searchrank on Sep 14
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Losing weight doesn't have to be an overly complicated endeavor, but it does require a basic understanding of how diet, exercise, and lifestyle are related. In this infographic, learn about the actual...





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