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The Science Of Addiction

THE SCIENCE OFADDICTION HEROIN Impact on America According to a 2011 national survey, 4.2 million Americans aged 12 or older had used heroin at least once in their lives. An estimated 23 percent of people that use heroin become dependent on it. How does it affect the body? Once heroin enters the body, it binds to specific opioid receptors in the brain called mu-opioid receptors. When these mu-opioid receptors activate the reward center of the brain, they stimulate dopamine production, resulting in sensations of pleasure. Some negative effects of using heroin I Fatal overdose I Liver disease I Infectious diseases I Kidney disease I Collapsed veins I Pulmonary complications I Infections of the heart Withdrawal symptoms COCAINE Impact on America Cocaine abuse leads to nearly half of all drug related emergency room visits. Nearly 75% of people that try cocaine will become addicted to it. How does it affect the body? Once cocaine enters the body, it produces a drastic effect on the nervous system by increasing dopamine levels in brain circuits which regulate pleasure and movement. For regular users, cocaine can cause long-term changes in the brain's systems. These changes lead to addiction. Some negative effects of using cocaine I Constricts blood vessels | Stroke I Increases body temperature Loss of sense of smell I Increases heart rate I Severe paranoia I Irritability I Increases blood pressure I Gastrointestinal complications Bowel gangrene I Heart attack Methamphetamine Prescription drugs Impact on America Impact on America According to federal estimates, more than 12 million Americans have tried methamphetamine and 1.5 million are regular users. Overdoses of prescription opioid drugs kill more people than overdoses from all other drugs combined, including cocaine and heroin. The most common classes of abused prescription drug are opioid pain relievers (such as Oxycotin and Vicodin), stimulants (such as Adderall), and depressants (such as Xanax or Valium). How does it affect the body? How does it affect the body? When these medicines are taken as intended, they treat specific physical or mental symptoms. However, when abused, the drugs can affect the brain in ways similar to illegal drugs. Abuse of every kind of prescription or over-the-counter drug directly or indirectly results in a dopamine increase in the body. When methamphetamine is abused, it rapidly increases dopamine levels in the human body. Some negative of using methamphetamine Some negative effects of using prescription drugs I Anxiety I Confusion I Dangerously high body temperatures I Irregular heartbeat I Insomnia I Violent behavior I Seizures I Hostility I Paranoja I Paranoia I Psychosis I Visual and auditory hallucinations I Heart failure Tobacco Alcohol Impact on America Impact on America Cigarette smoking causes more than 443,000 premature deaths in the United States every year. Binge drinking is the most common way people abuse alcohol. One in every six American adults binge drinks roughly 4 times a month, consuming an average of 8 drinks per binge. How does it affect the body? How does it affect the body? When nicotine enters the bloodstream, it immediately stimulates the adrenal glands and increases release of adrenaline. This stimulation then attacks the central nervous system, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration. Thase who smoke tobacco regularly experience long term brain changes due to their exposure to nicotine. These changes directly lead to addiction. Once it enters the body, alcohol is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream from the stomach and small intestine. Alcohol is primarily a central nervous system depressant that also affects every organ in the human body. Some negative effects of using tobacco Some negative effects of abusing alcohol I Cancer I Impaired brain functions I Birth defects Diabetes Cancer I Heart disease Lung disease (such as bronchitis, emphysema, Stroke I Stroke I Liver disease and chronic airway obstruction) Benzodiazepine infographic by: Impact on America 30% of drug overdose deaths in 2010 were benzodiazepine related. Morningside RECOVERY How does it affect body? Benzodiazepine increases production of the neurotransmitter GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter whose job it is to slow (or calm) things down for the user, This calming effect is the result of an increase in the number of transmitters sending messages brain cells. Some negative effects of abusing Benzodiazepine Continued use of this drug results in the brain's naturally produced GABA becoming less effective. I Attempts to quit after long-term use can result in the brain going Sources: into excessive drive. This effect causes a set of withdrawal symptoms, including: I Anxiety I Memory problems I Paranoia Panic attacks Agoraphobia

The Science Of Addiction

shared by Michaelson on Jun 29
Drug abuse is a constant problem in the modern age, both across the world and throughout the United States. Abusing different substances can lead to addiction and harm a person in many different ways....


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