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The History, Facts & Basics of Vaccines, Diseases & Pandemics

VACCINES THE HISTORY, FACTS & BASICS OF DISEASES & PANDEMICS Since the dawn of time, humanity has been battling disease and trying to understand why people got sick and died in large numbers throughout history. BACTERIA Vs VIRUS What's the Difference? Bacterial Diseases Viral Diseases Tuberculosis, Cholera, Pertussis, Bubonic Plague, {Anthrax} Anthrax, Typhus, Scarlet Fever, Measles, Smallpox, Mumps, Chicken Pox, HIV, Influenza, Yellow Fever, Polio, Ebola, Rubella and Rabies. {НIY Necrotizing Fasciitis and Diphtheria. Single-celled microorganisms that exist everywhere Acellular - no cell structure - that require a living host Either beneficial or harmful to hosts Always harmful causing illness to hosts Living organisms Thought to be nonliving Small = 1000nm (nanometers) Smaller = 20-400nm (nanometers) Intercellular organisms that live between cells Intracellular organisms, that infiltrate a host cell GREAT PANDEMICS A Historical Roadmap 430в.С. First Recorded Pandemic in History The Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta led to a great pestilence war, which many believe to have actually been smallpox 30KO 20-30% than of the Athenian population died 541 A.D. 1334 The Plague of Justinian Great Plague of London 50 MILLION+ 25MILLION+ died throughout the Middle East, Asia and the Mediterranean died throughout Europe when this plague followed trade from China 1347-1351 The Black Death Bubonic Plague decimates Europe's population by killing 1/3 to 1/2 or 25-200MILLION 1519 1633 Cortez Brings Smallpox to Mexico Smallpox Brought to the U.S. Colonies 8MILLION+ 70PE PERCENT Natives die in just 2 years - over the next 100 years 25 Million perish of the North American Native population is completely wiped out 1793 1830 Yellow Fever Hits Philadelphia Second Cholera Pandemic 2-5 THOUSAND 150 THOUSAND of its 45k inhabitants die from the fever spread by mosquitoes died as the disease spread via pioneers traveling the Oregon & Mormon trails 1860-1890 The Modern Plague As this plague raged through China, India & Hong Kong, deaths numbered OVER T2 MILLION 1918 1952 Spanish Flu Infects 1/3 of the World The Great U.S. Polio Epidemic 50MILLION 58THOUSAND die of this flu, quickly spread by the soldiers' living conditions in WI cases reported with 3,100 deaths and 21,000 left paralyzed 1957 1962 The Asian Flu Pandemic Rubella Pandemic 2мш {German Measles} 2MILLION 20THOUSAND die worldwide - many older Americans are immune due to the 1918 outbreak babies born with Rubella Syndrome, tens of thousands of women miscarry 2009-2010 The Swine Flu Affected 74 countries, infected 89M & killed 18.5k people worldwide Influenza A (HIN1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine For 6 months and NEARLY 14O MILLION doses of vaccine were given in the U.S. alone VACCINE RESEARCH Discovery & Development The Early Pioneers Modern Researchers 1718 Lady Mary Worley Montagu of England, witnesses the practice of smallpox variolation while living in Turkey - her son is inoculated. 1900 Jesse Lazear & the U.S. Army Y.F.C. discover that mosquitoes transmit yellow fever, following the Spanish-American War. 1721 Lady Mary Worley Montagu & Dr. Charles Maitland perform variolation for the 1st time in England. Fourteen people are successfully variolated & survive. 1929 Dr. Drinker and Dr. McKhann develop the Iron Lung, a respirator for patients suffering from paralysis due to polio. 1770 Edward Jenner, meets a milkmaid immune from smallpox because she has already contracted cowpox. 1936 Max Theiler develops a yellow fever vaccine. This, along with anti-mosquito methods, majorly reduces infection worldwide. 052 1796 Jenner transfers cowpox material to a healthy boy. Later, the child is inoculated again, and remains healthy. 1955 Dr. Jonas Salk, develops the first safe and effective polio vaccine. His research funded by the March of Dimes & U.S. Gov't. 1857 Louis Pasteur, finds fermentation is a biological process understanding microorganisms better. 1957 Dr. Maurice Hilleman, learns of Asian Flu, discovers that only people who survived the 1889-1890 flu are safe and produces a vaccine. 5ml 1862 Pasteur finds that rotting does not occur when organisms are kept from growing, leading to pasteurization. 1962 Dr. Hilleman develops a measles vaccine treated with gamma globulin antibodies to reduce adverse reactions. 1879 Pasteur produces the first lab vaccine for chicken cholera using attenuated (weakened) bacteria. 1963 Dr. Hilleman's daughter becomes ill with the mumps. He collects a sample, isolates the virus in his lab, and develops a vaccine. 1884 Pasteur develops a rabies vaccine for dogs. A year later, he gives a post-bite vaccination to an infected boy - the boy survives. 1965 Dr. Hilleman uses the new mumps vaccine, developed from the virus he isolated 2yrs earlier, on his younger daughter. 1885 Jaime Ferran develops the first bacterial vaccine for humans. He vaccinates 50k people during a cholera epidemic. 1885+ Jaime Ferran later develops vaccines for plague, tetanus, typhus and tuberculosis. 1971 Dr. Hilleman develops a combined vaccine (MMR). Of kids vaccinated, immunity is induced to measles in 96%, to mumps in 95% & to rubella in 94%. 1979 Last case of polio in the U.S. 1980 Smallpox destroyed worldwide by vaccination. 1995 U.S. FDA licenses the chickenpox vaccine. 2000 Measles declared eliminated in U.S., however, residents remain at risk from imported cases. MAKING VACCINES How Do They Do That? Bacterial Vaccines Bacteria are grown Viral Vaccines Small amounts of a specific virus are grown in host cells and Antigens are released. in bioreactors that work like fermenters and Antigens are released. Antigens Isolated & Purified Addition of Immune Response Enhancers & Stabilizers Mixing, Preparation & Packaging For Distribution and Dosing {Various types of cells are used to host controlled virus growth in culture.} {Bioreactors "ferment" Bacterial cultures.} VACCINES - 411 How Do Vaccines Work? Vaccine Vaccines are Immunity "Insurance" Vaccines are introduced into the body to allow the host's immune system to build defenses against disease before a full-blown infection. { fig. 1. Inactive antigens introduced via vaccination} { fig. 2. Immune system alerted to disease threat} {fig. 3. Immunme system responds with antibodies} {fig. 4. Immune system now remembers threat & response} DISEASE CASES U.S. Reports for 2014 Although each year, approximately 1% of Americans are stricken by the Flu, most of the "pandemic" diseases are now under control in the U.S. & most of the world. 2014 U.S. reports show no cases of smallpox, cholera, yellow fever, polio or anthrax. 1 Case Each of Rabies & Diphtheria Reported 20K 299 Cases of Mumps & Rubella (Per Year) Cases of Bubonic Plague Reported Cases of Typhoid Fever Reported 645 20K-200K Cases of Ebola Virus Reported Cases of Measles Reported Cases of Pertussis, Chicken Pox Scarlet Fever & TB (Per Year) OVER ZMILLION Cases of Influenza Reported in the U.S. (Per Year) = 100 = 1,000 10,000 %3D REFERENCES 7. http://www.naturalnews.com026178_flu_influenza_bird.html 1. http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/pioneers 2. http://jenniferleecarrell.com/variolation-vs-vaccination/ 3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Mary_Wortley_Montagu 4. http://www.rwjf.org/en/culture-of-health/2013/12/the_ five_deadliesto.html 5. http://www.neatorama.com/2009/04/27/5-deadliest- pandemics-in-history/ 6. http://www.cnn.com/interactive/2014/10/health/epidemics- through-history/ 8. http://www.marchofdimes.org/mission/eddie-cantor-and-the- origin-of-the-march-of-dimes.aspx 9. http://healthland.time.com/2013/01/29/5-things-you-should- know-about-chickenpox-and-shingles/ 10. http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/how-vaccines-work 11. http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/how-vaccines-are-made 12. http://www.diffen.com/difference/Bacteria_vs_Virus 13. Some images/photos © Shutterstock.com Research & infographic commissioned and published by: Infographic design & illustration by: ONLINE MASTERS Dubs&Dash in Public Health Strategy Creativity Results www.d2-group.com onlinemastersinpublichealth.com 4+

The History, Facts & Basics of Vaccines, Diseases & Pandemics

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This infographic explores the historical pathway to the development of vaccines as well as an in-depth background of the world's greatest outbreaks

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