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History of Addiction - The Industrial Revolution

Alcohol Tobacco Cannabis Cocaine Opium Caffeine Barbiturates LSD Amphetamines THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1800's 1800 The temperance movement spreads across the U.S., growing to 1 million members by the middle of the Napoleon's army, returning from Egypt, introduces cannibis (hashish, marijuana) into France. century. 1803 A German chemist dissolves opium in acid before neutralizing the mixture with ammonia - and discovers morphine. Doctors around the world rejoiced, many lauding the new drug as a miracle. Physicians widely begin prescribing morphine for pain relief. Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner, a 1805 German chemist, isolates and describes morphine. (Discovers) 1826 Nicotine is isolated in its pure form, and many scientists conclude it is fundamentally a toxin. Chinese officials order all 1839 foreigners to hand over their opium supplies, sparking the two-year Opium War. Cocaine is isolated in its pure form. 1844 New York 1845 State prohibits the sale of liquor. 1847 The American Medical Association is founded. 1850 The invention of the syringe causes a surge in morphine use. Soldiers given morphine during the Civil War become addicted, giving rise to a 1861 condition known as 1862 "SOLDIER'S DISEASE." Internal Revenue Act enacted imposing a license fee of $20 20 $1: on retail liquor dealers, and a tax of a barrel and on beer a gallon cents on spirits. 1864 Adolf von Baeyer, a 1874 San Francisco bans 29-nine-year-old assistant of Friedrich August Kekule (the discoverer of the molecular structure opium smoking within city limits, though it was allowed to of benzene) in Ghent, synthesizes barbituric acid, the first barbiturate. continue in Chinatown. The R.J. Reynolds 1875 Company is founded and begins producing chew. 1883 Dr. Theodor Aschenbrandt, a German army physician, secures a supply of pure cocaine from the pharmaceutical firm of Merck, issues it to Bavarian soldiers during their maneuvers, and reports on the beneficial effects of the drug in increasing the soldiers' ability to endure fatigue. HighGre ARITA NA Sun Cure CARITANA . 1884 Sigmund Freud treats his depression with cocaine, and reports feeling 1885 66 exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which is in no way The Report of the Royal Commission on Opium concludes that opium is more like the Westerner's liquor than a substance to be feared and abhorred. differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person. .. You perceive an increase in self-control and possess more 1889 The John Hopkins Hospital, in Baltimore, Maryland, is opened. One of its world-famous founders, Dr. William ed, is a vitality and capacity for work.. .. In other words, you simply more normal, and it is soon hard to believe that you Stewart morphine addict. He continues to use morphine in large doses throughout his phenomenally successful surgical career lasting until his death in 1922. are under the influence of a drug." 1890 Congress passes a tax on opium and morphine sales, making it 1884 the first federal narcotics law. Norman Kerr, and English physician and president of the British Society for the study of Inebriety, declares: 1898 66 Drunkenness has generally been regarded as.. a sin a vice, or a crime.... [But] there is now consensus of intelligent opinion that habitual and periodic Diacetylmorphine (heroin) is synthesized in Germany. It is widely lauded as a "safe preparation free from addiction-forming properties." drunkenness is often either a symptom or sequel of disease. ... The victim can no more resist [alcohol] than a man with ague can resist shivering." WORLD WAR I--E 1900 TO 1918 1900 1900s James R. L. Daly, writing in the "Boston Medical and Surgical Journal," declares: "It [heroin] possesses many advantages over morphine. . It is not hypnotic; and there is no danger of acquiring the habit. Tobacco use continues unabated in the United States. Phillip Morris launches its iconic Marlboro brand, and R.J. Reynolds begins selling Camel cigarettes. Other companies begin marketing products directly to women, and rates of female smokers surge. TVORY TIPPED MARLBORO Mulis GARETTES 1901 A law makes it illegal to sell liquor to native Hawaiians, Alaskans, Indians, immigrants THE AMER THE RICHNE THE ORIEMPALA and railroad workers. PHILIP MORRIS &Ce LD 1 1902 A journal article by Doctor T.D. Crothers classified coffee addition with alcoholism 1903 and morphine addiction, citing cases of "coffee psychosis" and describing coffee as a gateway drug that leads to opium and alcohol abuse. Tobacco use continues unabated in the United States. Phillip Morris launches its iconic Marlboro brand, and R.J. Reynolds begins selling Camel cigarettes. Other companies begin marketing products directly to women, and rates of female smokers surge. INCE Coca-Cola ORIGIN az 2s0ml ALLAND 1905 Connecticut makes cocaine possession illegal without a prescription. 1906 The first Pure Food and Drug Act becomes law; until its enactment, it was possible to buy in stores or by mail order medicines containing morphine, cocaine, or heroin, and without their being so labeled. The United States prohibits the importation of smoking opium. 1909 1909 An article on the dangers of caffeine states that while coffee was a "poison," tea was even worse, with users becoming depressed and experiencing "vague, weak speech." The British 1910 dismantle the India-China opium trade. 1909 Massachusetts outlaws cannabis. 1912 1912 Phenobarbital is introduced MDMA first synthesized by German company Merck Pharmaceuticals. into therapeutics under the trade name of Luminal. 1913 California outlaws cannabis. 1914 1914 Forced The Harrison Narcotics Act seeks to control the sale of opium, opium derivatives, and cocaine. March tablets containing cocaine are 999999 given to troops by the British TABLOID Forced March Army. L'NITED STATES SPECIAL TAX STAMP INTERNAI. REVENCE OPIUM, COCA LEAVES, MARIIIUANA, ETC. KEEP TIHIS STAMP PONTED 1916 1916 German chemists developed oxycodone, a semi-synthetic version opioid. The drug is developed after Bayer stops producing heroin, due to widespread addiction issues. The Pharmacopoeia of the United States drops whiskey and brandy from its list of drugs. Four years later, American physicians begin prescribing these "drugs" in quantities never before prescribed by doctors. ARBENFABRIKEN FRIEDR BAYER&C ELBERFELD. Heroin Name geseliop O Nom dépase 1917 The president of the American Medical Association endorses national prohibition. By 1928, physicians make an estimated 1918 $40,000,000 The death in London of Billie Carleton, a rising star of stage musicals, is one in a series of high profile cocaine-related scandals. annually by writing prescriptions for whiskey. In the first six months after the enactment of the Volstead Act, more than 15,000 57,000 and physicians druggests and drug manufacturers apply for licenses to prescribe and sell liquor. THE ROARING TWENTIES AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION 1920 TO 1939 1920 1920 The U.S. Department of Agriculture publishes a pamphlet urging Americans to grow cannabis (marijuana) as a profitable undertaking. Alcohol becomes illegal in the United States, though demand doesn't decrease, giving rise to organized crime. In the first six months after Prohibition began, more than 73,000 physicians, pharmacists and drug manufacturers applied for licenses to prescribe and sell alcohol. Cocaine is banned in the UK under the Dangerous Drugs Act, following stories of "crazed soldiers" in WWI. The U.S. Treasury Department issues regulations outlining the treatment of addiction permitted under the Harrison Act. In Syracuse, New York, the narcotics clinic doctors report curing 90 percent of their addicts. 1921 1921 90% 1925 The manufacture of heroin is prohibited in the United States. It is estimated that in Germany one out of every hundred physicians is a morphine addict, consuming 0.1 grams of the alkaloid or more per day. 1928 Cigarettes are illegal in 14 states, and 92 anti-cigarette bills are pending in 28 states. Young women are expelled from college for smoking cigarettes. 1928 It's reported that physicians are bringing in an estimated Cannabis added to the list of proscribed substances in the Dangerous Drugs Act. million each year by prescribing whiskey as a medicinal First Rule Against Doping in Sports The International Association of Athletics treatment. Federation (IAAF), the governing body for the sport of track and field, become the first international sporting federation to prohibit doping by athletes. About 1 gallon of denatured industrial in 10 is diverted into bootleg liquor. About 40 Americans per million die each year from drinking illegal alcohol, mainly as a result of methyl (wood) alcohol poisoning. 1929 1930 The Federal Bureau of Narcotics is formed. Many of its agents, including its first commissioner, Harry J. Anslinger, are former prohibition agents. About 1932 1932 45,000 péople In America, amphetamine is marketed as Benzedrine in an are jailed on alcohol charges each year, over-the-counter inhaler to treat nasal congestion. and about 1,000 Americans bootleg liquor. die each year from drinking toxic 1933 1935 The 18th Amendment is repealed The American Medical Association passes a resolution declaring that 66 alcoholics are valid patients." and within a year, violent crime rates fall by two-thirds, leading many to view Prohibition as a failed experiment. 1936 1936 The Pan-American Coffee Burreau is Reefer Madness, an American anti-marijuana film, describes how a bunch of beatniks get hooked on the 'devil's weed, and sink into outlaw behavior. 20% organized to promote coffee use in the U.S. Between 1938 and 1941 coffee consumption increased 20%. From 1914 to 1938 consumption had increased 20%. The Marijuana Tax Act is enacted. 1937 1937 American researchers find that amphetamine has a positive effect on children with attention deficit disorder. Since the enactment of the Harrison Act in 1938 1938 1914, 25,000 physicians have been arraigned on narcotics charges, and Dr. Albert Hoffman, tories in Basle, Switzerland, synthesizes LSD. Five years later he inadvertently ingests a small chemist at Sandoz Labora- 3,000 amount. have served penitentiary sentences. Canada bans cannabis COMING UP NEXT: WORLD WAR II AND THE 6OS. cultivation. Though it was still available as a prescription, the point of the law is to control recreational use. active internet marketing lI.

History of Addiction - The Industrial Revolution

shared by FreedomDrugRehab on Oct 29
Substance abuse and addiction is not just a modern construct. For centuries, people have struggled with the effects of drugs, alcohol, and other mind-altering substances, including caffeine and tobacc...




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