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Heart Disease 101: The Basics

HEART DISEASE 101 The Basics Anatomy of the heart The cardiovascular system The heart is a muscular organ functioning as a pump that helps supply blood and oxygen to all parts of the body. is a complex network of arteries that transports blood to the organs, tissues and cells of the body. 100,000 heartbeats / day WEIGHT: 7-15 ounces (200-425 grams) 2,000 gallons (7,571 lters) of blood / day SIZE: similar to a closed fist It is divided into FOUR CHAMBERS. POSITION: within the chest cavity to the left of the breastbone surrounded by the pericardium Electrical "pacemaker" cells cause the heart to contract, pumping the blood. Most common heart diseases Coronary heart disease (CHD) Coronary artery disease (CAD) Arrhythmia These conditions occur when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart, inhibiting blood flow. This plaque build-up inside An abnormal heart rhythm due to changes in the conduction of electrical impulses through the heart. the arteries is called atherosclerosis. It may be caused by CAD, changes in the heart muscle, injury froma heart attack or the healing process after heart surgery. It can lead to heart attack. CND and CAD cost the U.S. $108.9 billion annually. Heart attack Heart failure (myocardial infarction or MI) The damage and death of heart muscle from the sudden blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot. Failure occurs when the heart's muscle becomes too damaged to adequately pump the blood. It is caused by CAD, heart attack, Most heart attacks are the result of CAD. conditions that overwork the heart, high blood pressure or heart defects present at birth. 1.5 million heart attacks occur annually in the U.S. 550,000 people diagnosed with heart failure each year mostly people older than 65 Risk factors Smoking Age Nicotine constricts blood vessels, and carbon monoxide can Aging increases the risk of damaged and narrowed arteries and weakened or thickened heart muscle. damage their inner lining, making them more susceptible to atherosclerosis. Poor diet A diet that is high in fat, salt, sugar Sex Men are generally at greater risk of heart disease, but women's risk increases after menopause. and cholesterol can contribute to the development of heart disease. High blood pressure High blood cholesterol levels Uncontrolled high blood pressure can result in hardening and thickening of arteries, narrowing the vessels through which blood flows. High levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of formation of plaque formation and atherosclerosis. Family history There is an increase in the risk of heart attack if a first-degree relative (parent or sibling) has had a heart attack or stroke. Mainly seen when the relative a before the age of 45 A before the age of 55 has had a heart attack if they are male T if they are female. 15% of heart attacks are caused by family genetic disorders Most common tests to diagnose heart diseases ECG (Electrocardiogram) A simple, painless test that shows how fast the heart is beating and its rhythm (steady or irregular). Holter monitoring A portable device used to record a continuous ECG, usually for 24 to 72 hours; it detects heart rhythm irregularities that aren't found during a regular ECG exam. Stress testing Used to determine the amount of stress that the heart can manage before developing either an abnormal rhythm or evidence of ischemia (not enough blood flow to the heart muscle). Echocardiography (echo) Uses sound waves to show areas of poor blood flow to the heart, areas of heart muscle that aren't contracting normally and previous injury to the heart muscle caused by poor blood flow. Chest x-ray Creates pictures of the organs and structures inside the chest, such as heart, lungs and blood vessels. It can reveal signs of heart failure. U Blood tests Check the levels of certain fats, cholesterol, sugar and proteins in the blood. Treatment of heart disease Lifestyle changes Medicines to help • Reduce the heart's workload and relieve CHD symptoms • Lower LDL cholesterol, blood pressure and other CHD risk factors • Prevent blood clots • Prevent or delay the need for a procedure or surgery, such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) Quit smoking Be physically active Follow a Maintain a healthy diet healthy weight ANGIOPLASTY is a nonsurgical procedure through which a surgeon opens blocked or narrowed coronary arteries. CABG is a type of surgery during which a surgeon removes arteries or veins from other uses them to bypass narrowed or blocked coronary arteries. Medical and surgical procedures s in the body Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) PART 1: Exercise tralning PART2: Educatlon, counsellng A two-part medically supervised program that can improve the health and well-being of people who have heart problems. and tralning Helps learn how to exercise safely, strengthen muscles and improve stamina and is based on personal abilities, needs and interests. Helps understand the heart condition and find ways to lower risk for future heart problems. What you can do to prevent heart disease Check your blood cholesterol regularly in case of family history of heart disease Get enough Don't smoke Control your Lower exercise blood pressure your cholesterol Sources http://www.nlm.nih.govlmedineplus/heartdiseases.html http://www. .com/health/heart- UF ONLINE http://www.m eat a easeltypesTreatments5 icle.htm http://www.odc. http://www.mavoclinic.or car cu hea ebasics/tests-diagnosisicon-20034050 http://www.nhibi.nih.gow/health/health-topicstopics/hdwidiagnosis.htmil http://www.nhlbi.nihgowhealth/health-topicstopics/hdwtreatment.html UNIVERSITY of FLORIDA

Heart Disease 101: The Basics

shared by andrewdeen on Oct 01
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and will continue to be well into the future. Awareness is vital to combat this disease and an understanding of heart disease, includin...


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