Transcript

The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly: Antibiotics

THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY: ANTIBIOTICS Since the discovery of penicillin, antibiotics have saved or improved millions of human lives. But the overuse or misuse of antibiotics can be dangerous. Learn the ups and downs of antibiotics in our daily lives. TO ANTIBIOTIC, OR NOT TO ANTIBIOTIC? Antibiotic use in humans has revolutionized health care- but it also comes with risks. THE GOOD Antibiotics are effective against: BACTERIAL INFECTIONS e.g. Strep throat SOME FUNGAL INFECTIONS e.g. Bronchitis SOME PARASITES e.g. Intestinal worms Abont% of Americans were prescribed antibiotics at the time of a 2013 study THE BAD As much as JU70 of prescribed antibiotics are unnecessary. THE MOST DANGEROUS SIDE according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS: DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA Case Study: MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) 80.000 annual cases II.00U: Annual total deaths caused by MRSA, according to a CDC estimate THE UGLY ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA SICKEN 23.000+ DIE 2+ MILLION AMERICANS ANNUALLY from these bacterial infections ABOUT THE POPULATION OF AARA NEW MEXICO OA x 1,000 ANTIBIOTICS IN OUR FOOD Are we eating antibiotics for dinner? THE GOOD When used correctly, antibiotics can.. • TREAT INFECTION AND PREVENT DISEASE • INCREASE FEED EFFICIENCY AND/OR GROWTH RATE THE BAD AS MUCH AS 8U% OF ALL ANTIBIOTICS SOLD IN THE U.S. EACH YEAR ARE FOR USE IN FOOD ANIMALS In 2013, the CDC and FDA both released reports that recommended phasing out the use of antibiotics for animal growth, in part to prevent the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria THE UGLY Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can spread from animals to people ANIMALS TREATED WITH ANTIBIOTICS: Case Study: Non-typhoidal Salmonella - Antibiotic-resistant bacteria | develop in the animals' guts 050/ Causes 3370 of U.S.-acquired, foodborne illnesses that result in hospitalization UNDERCOOKED OR POORLY PREPARED MEAT INFECTS HUMANS WHO EAT IT AND 28% THAT RESULT IN DEATH Bacteria in animal feces is exposed to food crops via fertilizer or water, and consumed by humans OCTOBER 2013 OUTBREAK: A Salmonella strain called Heidelberg spread via Foster Farms chicken products RESISTANT TO SEVERAL WIDELY PRESCRIBED ANTIBIOTICS BY DECEMBER 2013, 4l6 PEOPLE HAD BEEN INFECTED = 50 people -39% WERE HOSPITALIZED A WORLD WITHOUT ANTIBIOTICS What would this world look like? THE GOOD THE BAD Case Study: A 2007 study found that an increase in animal illness led to an increase In Germany's Saxony-Anhalt region, animals on farms that had discontinued the growth-promotion antibiotic, avoparcin, had 3% fecal colonization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci among healthy animals, compared to 12% before discontinuation human illness above the illness rate associated with animal resistance Denmark saw some disadvantages to banning growth-promotion antibiotics: >1%, 1.5-DAY INCREASE PIG PRODUCTION in the time it takes to reach slaughter weight COST INCREASE THE UGLY Antibiotics have saved countless lives - and a world entirely without them would be difficult. 9 IN 10 CHILDREN with bacterial TODAY, I IN IU OF ALL THOSE INFECTED DIE meningitis died before antibiotics, while survivors suffered a variety of disabilities A FEW TREATMENTS FOR INFECTIONS BEFORE ANTIBIOTICS: Sitting in the sun or under UV lamps for hours (for skin infection) Creams with ammoniated mercury Sources: http://www.fda.gow/forconsumersiconsumerupdateslucm092810.htm http://www.cbsne http:/umm.edu/health/medical/altmediconditionlintestinal-parasites http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/antibiotics/FLOD075 http://www.chw.org/display/PPF/DocID/22819/router.asp http://www.cdc.gowldrugresistancelthreat-report-2013/pdtiar-threats-2013-508.pdfitpage=11 http:/lquickfacts.census.govlgfdistates/35000.html http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/17/health/cdc-report-finds-23000-deaths-a-year-from-antibiotic-resistant-infections.html?_r=0 http://www.foodpolicy.umn.edu/policy-summaries-and-analyseslantibiotics/ http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/12/news-update-farm-animals-get-80-of-antibiotics-sold-in-us/ bacteria http://www.cdc.gowldrugresistance/threat-report-2013/pdfar-threats-2013-50 http://www.fda.govidownloads/AnimalVeterinarylGuidanceComplianceEnforcement/Guidanceforindustry/UCM299624. pdf http://www.cdc.gowldrugresistance/threat-report-2013/pdfiar-threats-2013-508.pdfipage=11 http://www.cdc.gowfoodborneburden/2011-foodborne-estimates.html http://www.cdc.gow/salmonella/heidelberg-10-13/index.html http:/lemedicine.medscape.com/article/216993-overview#showall http://www.ahi.org/issues-advocacylanimal-antibiotics/benefits-of-antibiotics/ http://www.pewhealth.orgluploadedFiles/PHG/Supporting_tems/DenmarkExperience.pdf http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issuesiconditions/treatmentsipages/The-History-of-Antibiotics.aspx http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/Meningitis/hic_Bacterial _Meningitis.aspx http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/21/magazine/antibiotic-resistance.html CARRINGTON COLLEGE ws.com/newsistudy-shows-70-percent-of-americans-lake-prescription-drugs/ 3-508.pdf#page-11

The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly: Antibiotics

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Since the discovery of penicillin, antibiotics have saved or improved millions of human lives. But the overuse or misuse of antibiotics can be dangerous. Learn the ups and downs of antibiotics in our ...

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