Transcript

Germ Warfare

GERM WARFARE Antibiotic resistance is a global problem. But which bacteria should we be most concerned about and where? BIG BUGS According to the World Health Organization these four bacteria cause some of the most common infections E. COLI Escherichia coli S. PNEUMONIAE Streptococcus pneumoniae K. PNEUMONIAE Klebsiella pneumoniae MRSA Staphylococcus aureus Initially acquired in hospitals, now found among the public. Can infect the skin, urinary tract, bloodstream, heart, Found in the human body but can also be transmitted from animals and through the food chain. Main cause of community-acquired pneumonia and meningitis in children and the elderly, and of septicaemia in HIV-infected patients. Particularly common in hospitals, occasionally leading to outbreaks. Can infect the urinary tract, respiratory tract and bloodstream. The most common cause of bloodstream and urinary tract infections. lungs, joints and bones. RESISTANCE MAPPED Where are these four bacteria most and least resistant? MRSA E. COLI Resistance to: Resistance rate Most 100% resistant Resistance to: O Fluoroquinolones O Third-generation Cephalosporins Methicillin Europe Asia Africa Americas 50% Guinea-Bissau O Peru 6 Nicaragua Solomon Islands Swaziland Leas resistant Argentina Romania e Micronesia A Brazil • Kiribati Iceland USA Samoa USA USA GDP per capita USA USA USA Iceland Philippines Greece Finland Namibia United Arab Emirates Oman Panama Greece Thailand O Congo Rep. Bolivia . Africa Americas S. PNEUMONIAE Europe K. PNEUMONIAE Asia Resistance to: Penicillins Resistance to: O Third-generation Cephalosporins Carbapenems Resistance data is latest available and only includes countries reporting comprehensive national data, unless otherwise stated in datasheet. Resistance rates measure the proportion of resistant bacterial isolates in bacterial isolates tested. NEED FOR SPEED Approvals for new antibiotics in the USA, by decade 43 20 1980-89 1990-99 2000-09 The pace of antibiotic resistance is outstripping the development of new drugs Years it can take to develop a new antibiotic 15 Years of widespread use of an antibiotic until bacteria with multi-resistance common 10 Notes: Resistance rates are 2013 for European countries and the latest year available prior to 2013 for non-European countries. Non-European countries only include those reporting comprehensive national data, unless otherwise stated in the datasheet. Sometimes the lowest resistance rate is shared by more than one country in a region. Where this is the case, just one country is shown - for the full list of countries with the lowest resistance rates, please see the datasheet. Sources: World Health Organization (2014), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2013), World Bank (2013), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Datasheet: bit.ly/Germ_Warfare BBC ibstudio for FUTURE Guinea Ethiopia Americas Philippines Cyprus Bulgaria Cuba Africa Micronesia Norway puej Malawi Malawi Icaragua adon3 USA USA Europe A Cuba Nicaragua Dorninican Republic Kirihati Myanmar New Zealand Ethiopia France A Peru Africa O El Salvador Americas Cyprus O Micronesi Mauritius

Germ Warfare

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Where in the world are superbugs fighting back the most? We chart antibiotic resistance for BBC Future

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BBC Future

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IIB Studio

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Health
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