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Fighting Malaria

FIGHTING MALARIA Malaria is caused by a parasite transmitted by mosquitoes. When an infected mosquito bites a human, malaria parasites enter the liver where they develop before emerging into the blood- stream. Symptoms include fever, headache, vomiting and fatigue. KEY MALARIA FACTS A child is killed by malaria every 60 seconds. 10-30 days: this is the time it takes for symptoms of malaria to take effect. SYMPTHOMS AFRICA 207 million MALARIA CASES 627,000 estimáted deaths Fevers Headaches There were about 207 million cases of malaria in 2012, causing an estimated 627,000 deaths3. Since 2001, Novartis has provided more than 700 million antimalarial treatments without profit, contributing to a significant reduction of the death toll from malaria. Fatigue Vomiting TODAY'S APPROACH TO FIGHTING MALARIA Holistic approach includes prevention and treatments PREVENTION Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINS) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticides that kill malaria parasites are 2000 to 2012 45% 49% effective in a wide range of circumstances TREATMENT Once a person is infected, treatment is needed to eliminate malaria parasites in the body. Since 2002, the WH0 recommends the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTS). The combination of prevention and treatment is yielding unprec- edented benefits for patients. From 2000 to 2012, malaria mor- tality rates fell by 45% around the world and by 49% in Africa. During this period, an estimated 3.3 million malaria deaths were averted globally, primarily as a result of a scale-up of interventions. HOW CAN WE REACH ELIMINATION? ELIMINATION Achieving malaria elimination requires the elimination of malaria parasites from the human population. We need a complete cure for patients who show malaria symptoms (symptomatic) and we also need to target the parasite reservoir in people who show no symptoms (asymptomatic) but play a role in disease transmission. WHAT ARE THE KEY CHARACTERISTICS FOR NEXT-GENERATION ANTIMALARIALS? FIGHT RESISTANCE COMPLETE CURE SINGLE DOSE Belong to new drug classes to attack the parasite in novel ways Be used in combination to counter the ability of the parasite to develop resistance Provide a complete cure, wiping out the parasite at every stage of its lifecycle, ensuring zero risk of passing it along to others, thus effectively blocking parasite transmission Clear parasites from the body in a single dose vs. 3-14 days of treatment currently THE NOVARTIS PIPELINE Novartis has one of the most promising malaria pipelines in the industry, with TWO DRUG CANDIDATES in development and a NEW DRUG TARGET. KAE609 KAF156 PI4K Both KAE609 (cipargamin) and KAF156 are new classes of antimalarial compounds that treat malaria in different ways from current therapies, important to combat emerging drug resistance. Novartis has also identified a new drug target (PI4K) with potential to prevent, block and treat malaria. HOW NOVARTIS IS ADDRESSING UNMET TREATMENT NEEDS FOR MALARIA TRANSMISION RESISTANCE COMPLETE CURE SINGLE DOSE BLOCKING KAE609 (cipargamin) KAE609 (cipargamin) and KAF156 (Phase 2 clinical trials) PI4K inhibitor KAE609 (cipargamin) (Pre-clinical phase) and KAF156 Gametocytes ingested by mosquito 1 Sporozcites injected via mosquito saliva Skin surface GAMETOGAMY 6 Merozoites escape + Gametocyte 2 PRE-ERYTHROCYTIC SCHIZOGONY in liver PI4K inhibitor 3 Micromerozoites released KAF156 KAE609 4 invade Merozoites Merozoites Merozoite escape ERYTHROCYTIC SCHIZOGONY in red blood cells Trophozoite O NOVARTIS

Fighting Malaria

shared by Mbtassino on Jul 25
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Malaria is caused by a parasite transmitted by mosquitoes. When an infected mosquito bites a human, malaria parasites enter the liver where they develop before emerging into the blood-stream. Sketch f...

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