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The Evolution of Medicine

The Evolution of MEDICINE Modern medicine has helped lead to a surge in average life expectancy, which was only about 36 in the late 1800s. With humans routinely living into their 100s, advances in medical science are to thank. Let's take a journey through the history of medical advancements. Life expectancy by year 78.7 80 73.7 67.1 48.3 36.6 40 1850 1900 1951 1990 2000 2011 Immunization and disease prevention Mental illness Surgery and medical technology Cancer 400ВС BC Hippocrates uses the term "karcinos" to describe tumors. "Karcinos" evolved into cancer. It's not yet known what causes cancer, with theories including imbalanced "humors" in the body. Hippocrates describes mumps, diphtheria, epidemic jaundice and other conditions. Mental disorders are understood as diseases rather than symptoms of demonic possession or signs of having displeased the gods. 2ND CENTURY AD Galen describes surgical treatments for breast cancer, which include removing early-stage tumors. But the surgeries are brutal and often fatal. For centuries, these rudimentary surgeries are the only treatment for cancer. 1100s The variolation technique is developed, involving the inoculation of children and adults with dried scab material recovered from smallpox patients. The first European establishment specifically for people with mental illness is probably established in Valencia, Spain. 1400s 1540 AD 1500s English barbers and surgeons perform tooth extractions and blood-letting. Europeans increasingly begin to isolate mentally ill people, often housing them with handicapped people, vagrants and delinquents. Those considered insane are increasingly 1600s treated inhumanely, often chained to walls and kept in dungeons. 1798 Edward Jenner publishes his work on the development of a vaccination that would protect against smallpox. He tests his theory by inoculating 8-year-old James Phipps with cowpox pustule liquid recovered from the hand of a milkmaid, Sarah Nelmes. 1700s - After the French Revolution, French physician Phillippe Pinel takes over the Bicêtre insane asylum and forbids the use of chains and shackles. He removes patients from dungeons, provides them with sunny rooms and allows them to exercise on the grounds. Yet in other places, mistreatment persists. Late 1700s Immunization and disease prevention Mental illness Surgery and medical Cancer technology 1818 1800s Human blood is transfused from one person to another for the first time. U.S. reformer Dorothea Dix observes mentally ill people in Massachusetts, seeing men and women of all ages incarcerated with criminals, left unclothed and in darkness and forced 1840 to go without heat or bathrooms. Anesthesia becomes widely available, helping expand options for surgery. Among cancer patients, surgery to remove tumors takes off. 1846 Surgeons use ether as they remove a tumor from a patient's neck. 1846 British surgeon Joseph Lister publishes Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery, extolling the virtues of cleanliness in surgery. The mortality rate for surgical patients immediately falls. 1867 Louis Pasteur and George Miller Sternberg almost simultaneously isolate and grow the pneumococcus organism. 1881 Mental illness is studied more scientifically as German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin distinguishes mental disorders. Though subsequent research will disprove some of his findings manic-depressive psychosis and schizophrenia holds to this day. 1883 amental distinction between The first successful appendectomy is performed in lowa. 1885 The expectation in the United States that hospitals for the mentally ill and humane treatment will cure the sick does not prove true. State mental hospitals become over-crowded, and custodial care supersedes humane treatment. New York World reporter Nellie Bly poses as a mentally ill person to become an inmate at an asylum. Her reports from inside result in more funding to improve conditions. Late 1800s William Halsted develops the radical mastectomy to treat breast cancer; the technique includes the surgical removal of the tumor, breast, overlying skin and muscle. 1889 Chemical agents are used to minimize germs. Carbolic acid is put on incisions to minimize germs and decrease infection rates. 1890 Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen invents X-rays. Radiation therapy follows. 1895 The first X-ray is performed in Germany. Mental Immunization and disease prevention Cancer Surgery and medical technology illness EARLY 1900s: The primary treatments of neurotic mental disorders, and sometimes psychosis, are psychoanalytical therapies ("talking cures") developed by Sigmund Freud and others, such as Carl Jung. 1900s Typhoid and rabies vaccines first licensed in the U.S.; tetanus toxoid is introduced. 1914 1915 Pertussis vaccine is licensed. THE SPANISH INFLUENZA 1918 PANDEMIC is responsible for 25 million to 50 million deaths worldwide, including more than 500,000 in the U.S. =1 million A chemical in the mustard gas used during World War l is found to reduce white blood 1919 cells. Chemotherapy is born. INSU Insulin is first used for treatment of diabetes, allowing diabetics to survive after diagnosis. 1922 Ualts 1928 Antibiotics dramatically decrease post-surgical infections. Drugs, electro-convulsive therapy and surgery are used to treat people with schizophrenia and others with persistent mental illnesses. Some are infected with malaria; others are treated with repeated insulin-induced comas. Others have parts of their brain removed through lobotomies. 1928 The first blood bank opens, helping make more surgery possible by treating bleeding during the procedure. 1937 1943 Penicillin becomes mass-produced. President Harry Truman signs the National Mental Health Act, calling for the National Institute of Mental Health to conduct research into the brain and behavior 1946 and reduce mental illness. Chemotherapy records its first, though temporary, success with the remission of a pediatric leukemia patient. 1947 Immunization and disease prevention Cancer Surgery and medical technology Mental illness Australian psychiatrist J. F. J. Cade introduces the use of lithium to treat psychosis. Lithium gains wide usage in the mid-1960s to treat those with manic depression, now known as bipolar disorder. 1949 John Hopps invents the cardiac pacemaker. 1950 Findings related to DNA give 1950 rise to molecular biology. A series of successful anti-psychotic drugs are introduced that do not cure psychosis but control its symptoms. The first of the anti-psychotics, the major class of drug used to treat psychosis, is discovered in France in 1952 and is named chlorpromazine (Thorazine). Studies show that 70 percent of patients with schizophrenia clearly improve on anti-psychotic drugs. 1950 A new type of therapy, behavior therapy. suggests that people with phobias can be trained to overcome them. 1950 A heart-lung bypass machine is used successfully for the first time. 1953 The first polio vaccine is licensed, pioneered by Dr. Jonas Salk. The Polio Vaccination Assistance Act is enacted by Congress, the first federal involvement in immunization activities. 1955 William Grey Walter invents the brain EEG topography (toposcope). 1957 The number of institutionalized mentally il people in the United States will drop from a peak of 560,000 to just over 130,000 in 1980. MID-1960s: 600K Many seriously mentally ill people are removed from institutions. In the United States they are directed toward local 100K 1960 mental health homes 1960 1980 and facilities. Many people suffering from mental illness become homeless because of inadequate housing and follow-up care. AU.S. surgeon general's report establishes an undeniable link 1964 between smoking and cancer. Mental illness Cancer Immunization and disease prevention Surgery and medical technology The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announces the first national measles eradication campaign. Within 2 years, measles incidence decrease by more than 90% compared with prevaccine-era levels. 1966 A heart transplant is performed by South African physician Christian Barnard, The heart recipient survived 18 days until succumbing to pneumonia. 1967 President Richard M. Nixon signs the National Cancer Act. 1971 The development of computed tomography (CT) revolutionizes radiology. 1972 Dr. Janet Rowley shows chromosome abnormalities in those with cancer. The News Press 1973 LOUISE, THE FIRST IN-VINTRO BABY IN HUMAN HISTORY A baby conceived via in-vitro fertilization is born. 1978 An estimated one-third of all homeless people are considered seriously mentally ill, the vast majority of them suffering from schizophrenia. 1980 FDA approves the first vaccine against hepatitis B, one of the primary causes of liver cancer. 1981 1982 The Jarvik-7 artificial heart is used. The first documented robotic 1985 surgery is performed. PROZAC 20 mg Prozac is developed to treat various mental illnesses. 1986 EARLY 1990s: For the first time, overall cancer death rates begin to fall. 1990 A new generation of anti-psychotic drugs is introduced. These drugs prove to be more effective in treating schizophrenia and have fewer side effects. 1990 The entire Western Hemisphere is certified as "polio-free" by the World Health Organization. 1994 Immunization and disease prevention Mental illness Cancer Surgery and medical technology 2001: 2000 The FDA approves Gleevec, the first drug to target a specific gene mutation. The sequence of a complete human A genome is published. 2003 A vaccine is developed to prevent cervical cancer due to human papillomavirus. 2006 The vaccine court rules that the mumps/measles/rubella vaccine, when administered with thimerosal-containing vaccines, does not cause autism. 2009 SOURCES • • • • • • • •

The Evolution of Medicine

shared by caradelany on Jan 15
There is no denying the fact that the past few centuries have brought a wealth of knowledge to the medical field. From antibiotics, to new surgeries and vaccines, we’ve seen a huge evolution in hea...


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