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Brain Injury Explained

Brain Injury Explained What are the causes? Traumatic Brain Injuries result from damage to the brain caused by an impact to the head. Approximately 85% of traumatic brain injuries are classified as minor, 10% as moderate and 5% as severe. 21% Falls, trips and slips 7% These often occur at Sports home, in the workplace and on pavements and Including rugby, football, boxing, hockey and also other high impact or more extreme sports. streets. Other 10% Including electrical shock and industrial accidents. 12% Road Traffic Accidents The most common cause of Physical assault brain injury in the UK, accounting for 50% of all brain injuries; this includes cars, trucks, motorcycles, bicycles, and pedestrians hit by vehicles. 50% Including cases of domestic violence, child abuse and shaken baby syndrome. Road traffic accidents account for 25% of minor head injuries and 50% of all Road traffic accidents cause most traumatic brain of the severe head injuries. injuries and are likely to become the third most common cause of death and disability worldwide over the In 2011/2012 around The number of next 20 years. 49,000 people were admitted to hospital as the result of an injury cyclists killed or seriously injured on UK roads has increased by 11% in the past three years. caused by a road traffic accident in England. Road traffic accidents by region This map illustrates the number of those seriously injured in various regions across the UK, between June 2011 and June 2012. 500 - 999 1000 - 1499 1500 - 1999 2000 - 2499 2500 - 2999 Over 3000 +12% +11% +6% Metropolitan Greater West London Manchester Yorkshire 12% increase between 2011 11% increase between 2011 6% increase between 2011 and 2012. and 2012. and 2012. Types of brain injury Closed head Open or penetrating wounds Crushing injuries injuries This type of injury is where the head might be caught between two hard objects, such as the wheel of a car and the road. The most common type, and so called because no break of the skin or open wound is visible. These often occur as a result of the head being rocked back and This type of injury is where the skull is injured and the brain is exposed and damaged. This This is the least common type of injury, and often damages the base of the skull and nerves of the brain stem, rather than the brain itself. could be due to a collision with forth or rotated. The brain is a sharp object such as a motorcycle brake lever. injured either as it impacts on the skull or as a result of shearing forces. The effects The impact of brain injury can vary enormously, at the severe end of the spectrum – causing catastrophic physical and cognitive disability – to more subtle problems which may not be readily apparent but which can still have a profound impact on a person's quality of life and their relationships. Cognitive effects Physical effects Emotional effects Attention and concentration Dizziness or trouble with Impulsivity and problems with self-control problems balance and co-ordination Memory loss and post-traumatic amnesia Nausea and vomiting Irritability and anger issues Persistent and severe Frustration and impatience Difficulties with problem solving and making decisions headaches Depression, anxietų and tearfulness Visual disturbances (blurred or double vision, sensitivity to bright lights) Increased amount of time Lack of motivation required to think Altered sexual drive or function Aural disturbances (easily upset at loud noise, hearing trouble) Difficulty with mobility and co-ordination Change in sense of taste or smell Spotting the signs Brain injuries are not always picked up straight after an accident or bump on the head, especially where the person suffered physical injuries. According to only 15% of mild injury symptoms last over a year. Mild Brain Injury Severe Brain Injury Mild brain injury is classed as concussion and minor head trauma Symptoms include: Numbness Mild brain injury is often overlooked at the time of the accident and symptoms are often temporary. Seizures and convulsions Unrelenting headaches Symptoms include: Poor co-ordination Sleep disturbance Paralysis Loss of consciousness Coma Lack of balance Slow pulse and shallow breathing Changes to social behaviour Blurred vision Sensitivity to light/sound Leigh Day Brought to you by Specialist Brain Injury Lawyors

Brain Injury Explained

shared by mhoward13 on May 23
This aims to raise awareness of causes, effects and signs of brain injury.


Leigh Day




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